Abstract

Objective: To compare cost-related non-adherence (CRNA), serious problems paying medical bills and average annual out-of-pocket cost over time in five countries.

Methods: Repeated cross-sectional analysis of the Commonwealth Fund International Health Policy survey from 2004 to 2014. Responses were compared between Canada, the UK, Australia, New Zealand and the US.

Results: Compared to the UK, respondents in Canada, Australia and New Zealand were two to three times and respondents in the US were eight times more likely to experience CRNA; these odds remained stable over time. From 2004 to 2014, Canadian respondents paid US $852–1,767 out-of-pocket for care. The US reported the largest risks of serious problems paying for care (13–18.5%), highest out-of-pocket costs (US $2,060–3,319) and greatest rise in expenditures.

Interpretation: Over the 10-year period, financial barriers to care were identified in Canada and internationally. Such persistent challenges are of great concern to countries striving for equitable access to healthcare.