We appreciate the thoughtful and thought-provoking commentaries to our lead paper (Wilkie and Tzountzouris 2017) in this issue. Clearly, the question of how to best enable the behaviours of healthcare professionals to optimize their impact on our healthcare system is a complex one. We approach the question from the position of a health regulatory authority with a recognition that we cannot act alone. In our response to the valuable contributions to this issue of Healthcare Papers, we seek to educe the common themes that are presented. Many questions remain unresolved and are best explored in a collaborative and iterative manner. It is of utmost importance that health professional regulatory models and professional behaviours are all coordinated in focus to meet the needs of patients and the public.