Longwoods Publishing Corporation 


Adalsteinn D. Brown
Interim Dean for the Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario

Editorial Advisory Board

Founding Editor-in-Chief: Peggy Leatt, BScN, MSHA, PhD
Professor and Chair Emeritus, Department of Health Policy and Management, Gillings School of Global Public Health,  University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC

Owen B. Adams
Director of Research, Policy and Planning, Canadian Medical Association
Dr. Arif Bhimji
Magna Health, Aurora, Ontario
Adalsteinn D. Brown
Interim Dean for the Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario
Dr. Gordon D. Brown
Professor and Director, University of Missouri–Columbia, Department of Health Management & Informatics
Mr. Tom Closson
Toronto, Ontario
Mr. William Carter
Borden Ladner Gervais, Toronto, Ontario
Mr. Michael Decter
Toronto, Ontario
Dr. Jeff Edelson
Vice President, Clinical at BioMotiv, AEQuanimitas Consulting LLC, Greater Philadelphia Area, PA
Dr. Bruce J. Fried
Associate Professor and Director, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina
Mr. Peter Goodhand
Markham, Ontario
Dr. Toby Gordon
Associate Professor and Director, The Johns Hopkins University, Department of Health Policy and Management, Baltimore, Maryland and Vice-President Planning & Marketing, Johns Hopkins Medicine
Dr. Carol Herbert
Professor Emeritus, UWO Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, London, Ontario
Dr. Alan Hudson
Toronto, Ontario
Mr. Ron Kaczorowski
President & Managing Director, Prism Alliance Group (IBO), Toronto, Ontario
Mr. John King
Healthcare Advisor, Toronto, Ontario
Dr. Sandra Leggat
School of Public Health, LaTrobe University, Bundoora, Victoria, Australia
Mr. Steven Lewis
President, Access Consulting Ltd., Saskatoon; Adjunct Professor of Health Policy, University of Calgary and Simon Fraser University
Mr. Jonathan Lomas
Founding Executive Director, Canadian Health Services Research Foundation, Ottawa, Ontario
Dr. Noni MacDonald
Dalhousie Medical School, Halifax, Nova Scotia
Mr. Bruce S. MacLellan
President, Environics Communications Inc., Toronto and New York
Mr. Joseph Mapa
President, Mount Sinai Hospital Foundation, Toronto, Ontario
Dr. Michael McGuigan
Medical Director, Long Island Regional Poison Control Center, New York
Dr. Robert McMurtry
Professor of Surgery, University of Western Ontario and Orthopedic Consultant, St. Joseph’s Health Care, London, Ontario
Dr. Eric Meslin
Director, Indiana University Center for Bioethics, Indianapolis, Indiana
Dr. Terrence J. Montague
Edmonton, Alberta
Mr. Torbjörn Pelow
Health Administrator & Consultant, Gothenburg, Sweden
Dr. Bernardo Ramirez
Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC
Dr. Janet Thompson Reagan
Professor and Director, Health Administration Programs, California State University, Northridge, California
Dr. Anne E. Rogers
Professor of the Sociology of Health Care, National Primary Care Research and Development Centre, University of Manchester, England
Dr. Judith Shamian
President, International Council of Nurses, Geneva, Switzerland 
Ms. Tina Smith
Program Director, University of Toronto, Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, Toronto, Ontario
Dr. Willem Wassenaar
President, Wellesley Therapeutics, Toronto, Ontario
Dr. Ruth Wilson
Professor, Department of Family Medicine, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario
Dr. Howard S. Zuckerman
Professor Emeritus, Center for Health Management Research, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington


Adalsteinn D. Brown 

Editorial Director

Dianne Foster-Kent 




Barbara Marshall 

Founding Publisher and Chairman (Retired)

Anton Hart 

Publisher & CEO

Matthew Hart 

Publisher & COO

Rebecca Hart 

Associate Publisher, Careers & Web

Susan Hale 

Associate Publisher, Customer Service & Administration

Barbara Marshall 

Design and Production

Antony F. Bickenson 


Eric Hart 


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HealthcarePapers is published four times per year by Longwoods™ Publishing Corp., 260 Adelaide St. East, No. 8, Toronto, ON M5A 1N1, Canada. The views and opinions expressed are those of the individual contributors and do not necessarily represent an official opinion of HealthcarePapers or Longwoods™ Publishing Corp. Readers are urged to consult their professional advisers prior to acting on the basis of material in this journal.

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ISSN No. 1488-917X

eISSN No. 1929-6339