Editorial Style Guide

Manuscript submissions will be copy-edited for grammar, punctuation and consistency of spelling and style; in some cases they will be edited for length. All Longwoods™ publications use Canadian spelling and follow the Oxford Canadian Dictionary (first choice listed). Note, however, that "healthcare" is one word as both an adjective and a noun.

General Points of Style

  • use double quotation marks, with single quotation marks within the double as necessary
  • commas and periods always within the quotation marks
  • series or serial comma not used to separate final elements in lists (e.g., CEOS, directors, managers and supervisors)
  • articles and prepositions within titles and headings lowercased
  • that/which distinction made for restrictive/nonrestrictive clauses
  • Dates:
    • March 2003 (no comma)
    • March 12, 2003
    • The 1990s (no apostrophe)
  • Numbers:
    • numbers below 10 spelled out; 10 and above as numerals
    • percentages always expressed as numerals, with percentage sign
      (e.g., 2%, 37%
    • dollar amounts - $10 million; $2 billion
  • en dash used to set off phrases within sentences; space either side
  • ellipses set tight; space either side for three ellipses within sentence ( ... ) 


The use of footnotes and endnotes is strongly discouraged. Instead, short explanatory remarks should be placed parenthetically in the text.

Longwoods™ follows a modified APA (American Psychological Association) style for referencing source material. In-text references should be placed in parentheses and consist of last name of the author(s) and the year of publication of the work to which reference has been made. No punctuation separates the two items.

In-text References

One author:

The theory was first propounded in 1970 (Goodenough 1971).

Alternatively, author surnames may be integrated into the text, followed immediately by the year of publication in parenthesis:

Goodenough (1971) was the first to propound the theory.

Two authors:

EI has been proven to positively affect an organisation's success (Cooper and Sawaf 1997).

Multiple authors/citations:

Any health organization could potentially benefit from this type of approach (Madden et al. 1995).

Madden et al. (1995) propose the following solutions ...

This trend is reflected in recent surveys of healthcare organizations (Gaudine 2000; Pimentel 2000; Canadian Physiotherapy Association 2000; Parent et al. 2001)

In-text citations requiring page references to quoted material should be styled as follows:

(Goodenough et al. 1979: 22-23; Simcoe 1980: 734-35.)

Reference List

Ensure that all sources cited in the text are included in a "Reference" list at the end of the article. The accompanying list should be in alphabetical order and include full publication details. For multiple entries by the same author, arrange citations in chronological order, earliest year first. In the examples shown here, the following rules are observed:

  • in citations with multiple authors, invert the first-name initial and surname only for the first author listed
  • no parentheses for year of publication
  • article titles in upper and lower case, enclosed in double quotation marks
  • journals and book titles in italics
  • volume number, issue number, page references styled as follows (all in romans - no italics): 15(3): 319-25

Sample References

Anis, A.H., D. Guh and X. Wang. 2001. "A Dog's Breakfast: Prescription Drug Coverage Varies Widely across Canada." Medical Care 39(4): 315-26.

Boyatzis, R., D. Goleman and K. Rhee. 2000. "Clustering Competence in Emotional Intelligence: Insights from the Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI)." In R. Bar-On and J.D.A. Parker, eds., The Handbook of Emotional Intelligence. San Fransisco, CA: Jossey Bass.

Drinka, T.J.K. and P.G. Clark. 2000. Healthcare Teamwork: Interdisciplinary Practice and Teaching. Westport, CT: Auburn House

Shortell, S.M., J. Zimmerman, D.M. Rousseau, R.R. Gillies, D.P. Wagner, E.A. Draper, W.A. Knaus and J. Duffy. 1994. "The Performance of Intensive Care Units: Does Good Management Make a Difference?" Medical Care 32(5): 508-25.

Citations of all material accessed on-line should be as complete as possible and include all the information that would normally be cited for a print source. In addition, the data of access/retrieval should be included. Place the full URL/Web site within angle brackets:

Canadian Medical Forum Task Force on Physician Supply. 1999. Physician Workforce. Ottawa: Canadian Medical Association. Retrieved September 2, 2002.

Tables and Figures

All illustrations consisting of line art (pie charts, bar graphs, etc.) should be labeled as "Figures" and numbered consecutively within the article (Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.). Include an appropriate title, legend and sourceline, where required, for each Figure. Similarly, all Tables should be numbers consecutively within the article (Table 1, Table 2, etc.)

For production purpose, all figures and embedded graphics in Word documents should also be provided with the manuscript as separate high-res files (jpeg, eps, psd (photoshop) or ai (illustrator) as 300 dpi.)

How to submit graphs & figures (PDF)

More information on high resolution photos (PDF)