Cancer Care Ontario (CCO) is the largest provincial cancer agency in Canada, with a long and rich history as a specialized service entity within a generic delivery system in Ontario. CCO's evolution has been well characterized by Hayter (1998), and described by us previously (Sullivan et al. 2003, 2004). Once criticized as a very inward-looking body with a mixed record in solving a series of radiation waiting-time crises, CCO has reinvented itself over the past three years in ways that are very similar to the transformation of the Veterans Health Administration.