When India achieved independence, its health situation was extremely dismal. However, considerable progress has been made in the past five decades, which is reflected in the various health indicators. Furthermore, polio has almost been eliminated. Small pox has been eradicated, and no case of guinea worm has been reported since 1996. When we compare the crude birth rate life expectancy with the infant mortality rate to those statistics of 1947, the improvement in public health is quite evident. Significant indigenous capabilities have been developed for production of drugs, vaccines, and equipment. [To view this article, please download the PDF.]