Intensified knowledge translation (KT) efforts are considered important in the field of mental health in order to accelerate the implementation of various developments in research, policy and practice. A scoping review of KT focused on the field of mental health was undertaken to help inform development of a Knowledge Exchange Centre being initiated by the Mental Health Commission of Canada. A systematic search of publications in English and French identified 187 publications that met inclusion criteria. Relevant literature was found across a number of disparate thematic research areas: implementation science, community-based and participatory action research, shared decision-making studies, mental health literacy research, network analysis and studies directly addressing KT. The available literature is concerned predominantly with KT efforts between a few specific stakeholder dyads. A paradigm shift has been emerging and has resulted in a progressively broader perspective, incorporating a wider range of participants and increased valuing of experiential knowledge.
The "scoping review" is a methodology designed to quickly and systematically identify the breadth of literature in an area being researched. It has four major functions: (a) to map the current state of literature in an area of interest, (b) to determine the usefulness or feasibility of conducting a systematic review, (c) to summarize and disseminate research findings to an audience (e.g., policy makers, healthcare providers) and (d) to identify gaps or areas where further research is required (Arksey and O'Malley 2005; Levac et al. 2010). It may be contrasted with the systematic review, which is more restricted in focus and seeks to answer particular research questions from the available literature.
This scoping review was undertaken to inform strategic planning for the development of a Knowledge Exchange Centre (KEC) – a component of the Mental Health Commission of Canada, a national organization created in 2007 through a federal endowment with a 10-year mandate to help improve mental health in Canada. The KEC, now being developed, will constitute one of the Commission's key initiatives and will seek to mobilize knowledge that will bring about action aimed to achieve meaningful and robust improvements to mental health in Canada. Development of the strategic plan for the KEC involved a review of the existing literature addressing knowledge translation (KT) focused on mental health issues.
The following definition of KT, advanced by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (2010), has been widely adopted in the field of healthcare and was used in this study:
[A] dynamic and iterative process that includes synthesis, dissemination, exchange and ethically-sound application of knowledge to improve the health of Canadians, provide more effective health services and products and strengthen the health care system. This process takes place within a complex system of interactions between researchers and knowledge users.
Interest in KT is not confined to the field of healthcare and has permeated many disciplines, including education, marketing, engineering, economics, information technology, community development and various business enterprises. In regard to health services research and health policy, Canadian contributors have often been at the forefront of developments in KT research, theory and practice (e.g., Barwick et al. 2009; Dobbins et al. 2009; Driedger et al. 2010; Gagnon 2009; Goering et al. 2003; Grimshaw et al. 2001; Jacobson et al. 2003; Lavis et al. 2006; Légaré et al. 2010; Lomas 1993, 2000; McGrath et al. 2009; Mitton et al. 2007; Straus et al. 2009; Waddell et al. 2005). The potential value of KT in achieving improvements in healthcare delivery and health outcomes has generated substantial enthusiasm, and KT has become a prominent element within Canadian health research funding organizations (e.g., Lomas 2000; Graham and Tetroe 2009). Evidence for the effectiveness of KT is accumulating gradually, but remains limited (Mitton et al. 2007). In approaching this scoping review of mental health-related KT we sought to cast a wide net, examining a broad range of findings, ideas and developments, while also aiming to identify gaps, unanswered questions and challenges that might emerge in reviewing the published literature.
This scoping review followed five steps:
1. Development of research questions
Three questions guided selection of relevant sources: (a) What is the nature of research activity concerning KT focused on mental health? (b) What types of KT initiatives have been studied in relation to mental health? and (c) What is the nature of research activity concerning processes of KT among stakeholders relevant to mental health?
2. Location of relevant publications
A total of 22 terms were used to search 11 electronic databases of published scientific literature. Search terms included knowledge exchange, knowledge transfer, knowledge translation, knowledge linkage, knowledge mobilization, knowledge management, knowledge sharing, knowledge utilization, knowledge distribution, knowledge diffusion, knowledge realization, knowledge embodiment, knowledge sharing + transfer, implementation research, research + use, information sharing, knowledge economy, knowledge level, organizational behaviour, evidence-based practice, diffusion of innovation and action research. An initial literature search was undertaken in English and, subsequently, a search of the French literature using translations of these terms was carried out. This latter search took into account linguistic differences, such as single English terms being captured by multiple French terms (e.g., knowledge being referred to as connaissance or savoir).
The 11 electronic databases searched included PsycINFO, CINAHL, Consumer Health Complete, EconLit, Global Health, Health Source – Consumer and Nursing/Academic editions, MEDLINE, SocINDEX, PubMed and Érudit. This search procedure gathered approximately 10,000 abstracts. These abstracts were then searched for keywords related to mental health, including mental, psyc (an abbreviation appropriate for both psychology- and psychiatry-related papers), depression, schizophrenia and anxiety. This secondary search reduced the list of abstracts to 326. These remaining abstracts were manually reviewed by members of the research team using the screening tool described in the next section. Papers were included if they addressed KT in the area of mental health and were published in peer-reviewed journals or dissertation abstracts in English or French. All papers were included regardless of publication date. We focused on the area of mental health broadly but excluded papers focused on low-income countries because of the likely differences in the structures and processes of exchange and communication of knowledge from those that exist in Canada.
Following these steps, 123 abstracts were identified initially as meeting our inclusion criteria. Preliminary analysis of the abstracts and discussion identified additional research areas as likely places to find relevant publications that did not appear in the initial round of searches. We also hand-searched reference lists of highly relevant papers and included those known to the authors, collecting an additional 64 abstracts. We chose to include dissertations with published literature rather than grey literature because of the substantial differences in audience for publicly available reports and unpublished dissertations, which can often be found only via university library memberships.
3. Screening and selection of publications
A screening tool was developed to determine relevance of papers to the exchange of knowledge related to mental health and code the type of data provided (e.g., empirical data, reviews, theoretical discussions). At the end of this process, 187 papers were deemed relevant, with 82% inter-rater agreement. Raters met to discuss disagreements in coding, and decisions about including or excluding papers were made jointly.
4. Organizing publications by use of appropriate framework
The papers were organized and coded as per the scoping review process proposed by Arksey and O'Malley (2005). Each of the 187 publications was categorized by country based on the location of the first author. We categorized the research approach as either quantitative, qualitative, discussion or other and included additional descriptors of research design based on design characteristics that were stated within the papers when these were included.
The publications were also categorized utilizing the knowledge exchange framework adopted by the Mental Health Commission of Canada (see Figure 1) in regard to the stakeholder groups that the KT addressed. The six stakeholder groups are as follows: (a) people with lived experience (PWLE) of mental health problems, which is a group that is broader than "patients," "clients" or "service-users," because the group is not limited to those who receive services but includes anyone who has experienced mental health problems directly; (b) family caregivers, i.e., family and friends of people with lived experience who may provide care and support; (c) policy makers; (d) researchers; (e) providers of mental health care; and (f) other stakeholders who interact with people suffering from mental health problems, e.g., employers, police or the general public. Publications were classified in regard to type of exchange, identifying KT to have occurred either within one group of stakeholders, i.e., within group; between two groups, i.e., dyad; or across three or more stakeholder groups, i.e., polyad. The stakeholder groups that were involved were identified.
5. Elucidation of key themes
This scoping review enabled identification of key themes emerging from within the existing literature on mental health–related KT. By illuminating these themes, we were able to examine key issues, areas of focus and potential gaps.
A full listing of the 187 publications obtained through our systematic search procedures in tabular form, organized by publication date (from earliest to most recent year of publication) and classified into the categories described in this section is available online at: https://www.longwoods.com/content/22620.
Year of publication
Figure 2 shows our findings regarding the publication dates of the papers that were selected in this review. Most papers were published relatively recently; the majority appeared in the literature over the four-year period immediately preceding this study, i.e., from 2007 to 2010.
Publications emanated largely from research conducted in the United States (67; 36%), Canada (62; 33%), the United Kingdom (20; 11%) and Australia (19; 10%), with additional contributions from researchers located in the Netherlands, Sweden, Germany, Iceland, France, Austria, Finland, New Zealand and China.
Research approach and research design
Of the 187 publications, 59 (32%) were categorized as discussion papers. Another 51 studies (27%) were classified as utilizing quantitative research methodologies. These included 22 studies (43% of the quantitative group) described as randomized controlled trials, two of which were designated to be cluster-randomized controlled trials. Other research designs found in the quantitative group included non-randomized controlled trials, pre–post trials, trials with waiting list controls and cross-sectional surveys.
There were 51 (27%) studies classified as qualitative in research approach. These included 26 studies (50% of the qualitative group) that were described as utilizing a participatory action research design. Additional descriptors for qualitative studies included case studies, whereas others described the use of focus group, interview-based or thematic analysis methods.
There were 36 publications (19%) that were classified as "other" in their research approach. These included 13 publications (36% of the "other" group) classified as reviews and 10 studies (28% of the "other" group) classified as using mixed-methods research designs (i.e., combining both quantitative and qualitative research approaches).
Type of exchange and groups
Of the total publications, 115 (62%) addressed KT between two stakeholder groups, or dyads. More than half of those studies (62; 54% of those classified as dyads) addressed KT between researchers and providers. Another 24 studies (21% of those classified as dyads) addressed KT between PWLE and providers.
A total of 61 publications (33%) were found to involve KT across three or more stakeholder groups, or polyads. These publications addressed KT across various combinations of stakeholder groups. The most frequent group combinations were PWLE–provider–researcher (9; 15% of polyads) and provider–policy maker–researcher (8; 13% of polyads).
There were 11 publications (6%) that appeared to focus on KT within one stakeholder group, described in Table 1 as "within group." Of these, 8 (73% of those classified as "within group") focused on KT within groups of providers.
|Authors||Year||Title||Publication||Country||Research approach||Research design||Type of exchange||Groups|
|Byrnes, E. & Johnson, J.H.||1981||Change technology and the implementation of automation in mental healthcare settings||Behavior Research Methods 13(4): 573-80||USA||Discussion||Discussion||Dyad||Provider-Policy maker|
|Backer T.E., Liberman, R.P., Kuehnel, T.G.||1986||Dissemination and adoption of innovative psychosocial interventions||Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 54(1): 111-18||USA||Discussion||Discussion||Polyad||Provider-Policy maker-Researcher|
|Ray, W.A., Blazer, D.G., Schaffner, W., Federspiel, C.F.||1987||Reducing antipsychotic drug prescribing for nursing home patients: a controlled trial of the effect of an educational visit||American Journal of Public Health 77: 1448-50||USA||Quantitative||Non-randomized controlled trial||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Tremblay, M.-A. & Poirier, C.||1989||La Construction culturelle de la recherche psychosociale en santé mentale : les enjeux scientifiques et sociopolitiques||Santé Mentale au Québec 14(1): 11-34||Canada||Discussion||Discussion||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Andersen, S.M. & Harthorn, B.H.||1990||Changing the psychiatric knowledge of primary care physicians: the effects of a brief intervention on clinical diagnosis and treatment||General Hospital Psychiatry 12: 177-90||USA||Quantitative||Quasi-experimental||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Badger, T.A., Mishel, M.H., Biocca, L.J. et al.||1991||Depression assessment and management: evaluating a community-based mental health training program for nurses||Public Health Nursing 8: 170-75||USA||Quantitative||Pre-post||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Steadman, H.J.||1992||Boundary spanners: a key component for the effective interactions of the justice and mental health systems||Law and Human Behavior 16(1): 75-87||USA||Discussion||Discussion||Dyad||Provider-Other|
|Avorn, J., Soumerai, S.B., Everitt, D.E. et al.||1992||A randomized trial of a program to reduce the use of psychoactive drugs in nursing homes||New England Journal of Medicine 327: 168-73||USA||Quantitative||Randomized controlled trial||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Rutz, W., von Knorring, L., Walinder, J.||1992||Long-term effects of an educational program for general practitioners given by the Swedish Committee for the Prevention and Treatment of Depression||Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 85: 83-88||Sweden||Quantitative||Pre-post||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Ray, W.A., Taylor J.A., Meador, K.G. et al.||1993||Reducing antipsychotic drug use in nursing homes: a controlled trial of provider education||Archives of Internal Medicine 153: 713-21||USA||Quantitative||Non-randomized controlled trial||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Clément, M., Ouellet, F., Coulombe, L. et al.||1995||Le partenariat de recherche : éléments de définition et ancrage dans quelques études de cas||Service Social 44(2): 147-64||Canada||Discussion||Discussion||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|de Burgh, S., Mattick, R.P., Donnelly, N. et al.||1995||A controlled trial of educational visiting to improve benzodiazepine prescribing in general practice||Australian Journal of Public Health 19: 142-48||Australia||Quantitative||Randomized controlled trial||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Kendrick, T., Burns T., Freeling, P.||1995||Randomised controlled trial of teaching general practitioners to carry out structured assessments of their long-term mentally ill patients||British Medical Journal 311: 93-97||UK||Quantitative||Randomized controlled trial||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Constantino, V. & Nelson, G.||1995||Changing relationships between self-help groups and mental health professionals: shifting ideology and power||Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health 14(2): 55-70||Canada||Qualitative||Focus groups||Polyad||PWLE-Family-Provider|
|Hill, C.E. & Fraser, G.J.||1995||Local knowledge and rural mental health reform||Community Mental Health Journal 31(6): 553-68||USA||Discussion||Discussion, participatory action theory||Polyad||PWLE-Family-Provider-Policy maker-Researcher|
|Hannaford, P.C., Thompson, C., Simpson, M.||1996||Evaluation of an educational programme to improve the recognition of psychological illness by general practitioners||British Journal of General Practice 46: 333-37||UK||Quantitative||Pre-post||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Campbell, J.||1996||Toward collaborative mental health outcome systems||New Directions for Mental Health Services 71: 69-78||USA||Discussion||Discussion||Dyad||PWLE-Provider|
|Burns, T., Millar, E., Garland, C. et al.||1998||Randomised controlled trial of teaching practice nurses to carry out structured assessments of patients receiving depot antipsychotic injections||British Medical Journal 48(437): 1845-48||UK||Quantitative||Randomized controlled trial||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Gask, L., Usherwood, T., Thompson, H. et al.||1998||Evaluation of a training package in the assessment and management of depression in primary care||Medical Education 32: 190-98||UK||Other||Mixed methods||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Goldberg, H.I., Wagner, E.H. et al.||1998||A randomized controlled trial of CQI teams and academic detailing: can they alter compliance with guidelines?||Joint Commission Journal on Quality Improvement 24: 130-42||USA||Quantitative||Randomized controlled trial||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Gerrity, M.S., Cole, S.A., Dietrich, A.J. et al.||1999||Improving the recognition and management of depression: is there a role for physician education?||Journal of Family Practice: 48(12): 949-57||USA||Quantitative||Randomized controlled trial||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Mason, J. & Freemantle, N.||1999||The effect of the distribution of Effective Healthcare Bulletins on prescribing selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in primary care||Health Trends 30: 120-25||UK||Quantitative||Pre-post||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Worrall, G., Angel, J., Chaulk, P. et al.||1999||Effectiveness of an educational strategy to improve family physicians' detection and management of depression: a randomized controlled trial||Canadian Medical Association Journal 161(1): 37-40||Canada||Quantitative||Randomized controlled trial||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Poirier, M., Larose, S., Ste-Marie, F. et al.||1999||Splendeurs et miséres de la concertation locale en santé mentale : un regard du terrain||Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health 18(2): 113-29||Canada||Discussion||Discussion||Within group||Provider-Provider|
|Brown, J.B., Shye, D. et al.||2000||Controlled trials of CQI and academic detailing to implement a clinical practice guideline for depression||Joint Commission Journal on Quality Improvement 26(1): 39-54||USA||Quantitative||Randomized controlled trial||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Heslop, L., Elsom, S., Parker, N.||2000||Improving continuity of care across psychiatric and emergency services: combining patient data within a participatory action research framework||Journal of Advanced Nursing 31(1): 135-43||Australia||Qualitative||Participatory action research||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Thompson, C., Kinmonth, A.L., Stevens, L. et al.||2000||Effects of a clinical practice guideline and practice-based education on detection and outcome of depression in primary care: Hampshire Depression Project randomised controlled trial||The Lancet 355(9199): 185-91||UK||Quantitative||Randomized controlled trial||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Townsend, E., Birch, D.E., Langley, J. et al.||2000||Participatory research in a mental health clubhouse||Occupational Therapy Journal of Research 20(1): 18-44||USA||Qualitative||Participatory action research||Dyad||PWLE-Researcher|
|Corrigan, P.W., Steiner, L., McCracken, S.G. et al.||2001||Strategies for disseminating evidence-based practices to staff who treat people with serious mental illness||Psychiatric Services 52(12): 1598-606||USA||Other||Review||Dyad||Provider-Policy maker|
|Rosenheck, R.A.||2001||Organizational process: a missing link between research and practice||Psychiatric Services 52: 1607-12||USA||Discussion||Discussion||Dyad||Provider-Policy maker|
|Baker, R., Reddish, S., Robertson, N. et al.||2001||Randomised controlled trial of tailored strategies to implement guidelines for the management of patients with depression in general practice||British Journal of General Practice 51: 737-41||UK||Quantitative||Randomized controlled trial||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Hodges, B., Inch, C., Silver, I.||2001||Improving the psychiatric knowledge, skills and attitudes of primary care physicians||American Journal of Psychiatry 158: 1579-86||Canada||Other||Review||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Lesage, A.D., Stip, E., Grunberg, F.||2001||"What's up, doc?" The context, limitations and issues for clinicians in evidence-based medicine||Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 46(5): 396-402||Canada||Discussion||Discussion||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Lin, E.H., Simon, G.E., Katzelnick, D.J. et al.||2001||Does physician education on depression management improve treatment in primary care?||Journal of General Internal Medicine 16: 614-19||USA||Quantitative||Pre-post||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Naismith, S.L., Hickie, I.B., Scott, E.M. et al.||2001||Effects of mental health training and clinical audit on general practitioners' management of common mental disorders||Medical Journal of Australia 175 (Suppl.): S42-47||Australia||Quantitative||Pre-post||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|van Eijk, M.E.C., Avorn, J., Porsius, A.J. et al.||2001||Reducing prescribing of highly anticholinergic antidepressants for elderly people: randomised trial of group versus individual academic detailing||British Medical Journal 322: 654-57||Netherlands||Quantitative||Randomized controlled trial||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Broner, N., Franczak, M., Dye, C. et al.||2001||Knowledge transfer, policy making and community empowerment: a consensus model approach for providing public mental health and substance abuse services||Psychiatric Quarterly 72(1): 79-102||USA||Discussion||Discussion, consensus model policy making||Polyad||Provider-Policy maker-Researcher-Other|
|Torrey, W.C., Drake, R.E., Dixon, L. et al.||2001||Implementing evidence-based practices for persons with severe mental illnesses||Psychiatric Services 52: 45-50||USA||Discussion||Discussion||Polyad||PWLE-Family-Provider-Policy maker-Researcher|
|Bate, S.P. & Robert, G.||2002||Knowledge management and communities of practice in the private sector: lessons for modernizing the National Health Service in England and Wales||Public Administration 80(4): 643-66||UK||Discussion||Discussion||Dyad||Provider-Policy maker|
|Fleury, M.J., Mercier, C., Denis, J.-L.||2002||Regional planning implementation and its impact on integration of a mental healthcare network||International Journal of Health Planning and Management 17(4): 315-32||Canada||Qualitative||case study||Dyad||Provider-Policy maker|
|Rempfer, M. & Knott, J.||2002||Participatory action research: a model for establishing partnerships between mental health researchers and persons with psychiatric disabilities||Occupational Therapy in Mental Health 17(3/4): 151-65||USA||Discussion||Discussion, participatory action theory||Dyad||PWLE-Researcher|
|Ochocka, J., Janzen, R., Nelson, G.||2002||Sharing power and knowledge: professional and mental health consumer/survivor researchers working together in a participatory action research project||Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal 25(4): 379||Canada||Qualitative||Participatory action||Polyad||PWLE-Provider-Researcher|
|Kates, N.||2002||Nouvelles approches : collaboration entre dispensateurs de soins primaires et de santé mentale||Santé Mentale au Québec 27(2): 93-108||Canada||Discussion||Discussion||Within group||Provider-Provider|
|Goering, P., Butterill, D., Jacobson, N. et al.||2003||Linkage and exchange at the organizational level: a model of collaboration between research and policy||Journal of Health Services Research & Policy 8: 14-19||Canada||Discussion||Discussion||Dyad||Policy maker-Researcher|
|Azocar, F., Cuffel, B., Goldman, W. et al.||2003||The impact of evidence-based guideline dissemination for the assessment and treatment of major depression in a managed behavioral health care organization||Journal of Behavioral Health Services Research 30(1): 109-18||USA||Quantitative||Randomized controlled trial||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Charest, R.-M.||2003||La Recherche pour servir les intérêts cliniques et sociaux||Psychologie Québec 5||Canada||Discussion||Discussion||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Gilbody, S.M., Whitty, P.M., Grimshaw, J.M. et al.||2003||Improving the detection and management of depression in primary care||Quality and Safety in Health Care 12: 149-55||UK||Discussion||Discussion, article review||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Lecomte, Y.||2003||Développer de meilleures pratiques||Santé Mentale au Québec 28(1): 9-36||Canada||Discussion||Discussion||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Nadeau, L.||2003||Le Processus d'élaboration des lignes directrices pour de meilleures pratiques : l'exemple des troubles concomitants de santé mentale, d'alcoolisme et de toxicomanie||Santé Mentale au Quebec 28(1): 37-53||Canada||Other||Guideline development||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Fenton, W.S.||2003||Shared decision-making: a model for the physician-patient relationship in the 21st century?||Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 107(6): 401-02||USA||Discussion||Discussion, shared decision-making||Dyad||PWLE-Provider|
|Van Korff, M., Katon, W., Rutter, C. et al.||2003||Effect on disability outcomes of a depression relapse prevention program||Psychosomatic Medicine 65: 938-43||USA||Quantitative||Randomized controlled trial||Dyad||PWLE-Provider|
|Ross, E., Ali, A., Toner, B.||2003||Investigating issues surrounding depression in adolescent girls across Ontario: a participatory action research project||Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health 22(1): 55-68||Canada||Qualitative||Participatory action||Dyad||PWLE-Researcher|
|Ganju, V.||2003||Implementation of evidence-based practices in state mental health systems||Schizophrenia Bulletin 29(1): 125-31||USA||Discussion||Discussion||Polyad||Provider-Policy maker-Researcher|
|Malm, U., Ivarsson, B., Allebeck, P. et al.||2003||Integrated care in schizophrenia: a two-year randomized controlled study of two community-based treatment programs||Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 107(6): 415-23||Sweden||Quantitative||Randomized controlled trial||Polyad||PWLE-Family-Provider|
|Kirmayer, L., Simpson, C., Cargo, M.||2003||Healing traditions: culture, community and mental health promotion with Canadian Aboriginal peoples||Australasian Psychiatry 11(SI): S15-S23||Canada||Discussion||Discussion||Polyad||PWLE-Family-Provider-Policy maker-Researcher-Other|
|Vingilis, E., Hartford, K., Schrecker, T. et al.||2003||Integrating knowledge generation with knowledge diffusion and utilization: a case study analysis of the consortium for applied research and evaluation in mental health.||Canadian Journal of Public Health 94(6): 468-71||Canada||Qualitative||Participatory action, single case design||Polyad||PWLE-Family-Provider-Policy maker-Researcher-Other|
|Sullivan, M.P., Kessler, L., Le Clair, J.K. et al.||2004||Defining best practices for specialty geriatric mental health outreach services: lessons for implementing mental health reform||Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 49(7): 458-66||Canada||Other||Review||Dyad||Provider-Policy maker|
|Van Os, J., Altamura, A.C., Bobes, J. et al.||2004||Evaluation of the two-way communication checklist as a clinical intervention: results of a multinational, randomized controlled trial||British Journal of Psychiatry 184: 79-83||Netherlands||Quantitative||Questionnaire data||Dyad||PWLE-Provider|
|Neufeldt, A.H.||2004||What does it take to transform mental health knowledge into workplace practice? Towards a theory of action||HealthcarePapers 5(2): 118-32||Canada||Discussion||Discussion||Polyad||Provider-Policy maker-Researcher|
|Gotham, H.J.||2004||Diffusion of mental health and substance abuse treatments: development, dissemination and implementation||Clinical Psychology Science and Practice 11(2): 160-77||USA||Discussion||Discussion||Polyad||Provider-Policy maker-Researcher|
|de Crespigny, C., Emden, C., Kowanko, I., Murray, H.||2004||A partnership model for ethical Indigenous research||Collegian: Journal of the Royal college of Nursing Australia 11(4): 7-13||Australia||Qualitative||Participatory action research||Polyad||PWLE-Family-Provider-Researcher|
|Sadavoy, J., Meier, R., Ong, A.Y.||2004||Barriers to access to mental health services for ethnic seniors: the Toronto Study||Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 49(3): 192-99||Canada||Qualitative||Participatory action, grounded theory||Polyad||PWLE-Family-Provider-Researcher|
|Minore, B., Boone, M., Katt, M. et al.||2004||Addressing the realities of healthcare in northern Aboriginal communities through participatory action research||Journal of Interprofessional Care 18(4): 360-68||Canada||Other||Mixed methods, participatory action research||Polyad||PWLE-Provider-Policy maker|
|Sundar, P. & Ochocka, J.||2004||Bridging the gap between dreams and realities related to employment and mental health: implications for policy and practice||Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health 23(1): 75-89||Canada||Qualitative||Participatory action||Polyad||PWLE-Provider-Researcher|
|Waddell, C., Lavis, J.N., Abelson, J. et al.||2005||Research use in children's mental health policy in Canada: maintaining vigilance amid ambiguity||Social Science & Medicine 61(8): 1649-57||Canada||Qualitative||Interviews||Dyad||Policy maker-Researcher|
|Bourbonnais, R., Gauthier, N., Vézina, M. et al.||2005||Une intervention en centres d'hébergement et de soins de longue durée visant á réduire les problémes de santé mentale liés au travail||Pistes 7(2)||Canada||Other||Mixed methods, participatory action research, qualitative evaluation, questionnaires||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Eisses, A.M.H. et al.||2005||Care staff training in detection of depression in residential homes for the elderly||British Journal of Psychiatry 186: 404-09||Netherlands||Quantitative||Randomized controlled trial||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Rousseau, C., Alain, N., DePlaen, S. et al.||2005||Repenser la formation continue dans le réseau de la santé et des services sociaux : l'expérience des séminaires interinstitutionnels en intervention transculturelle||Nouvelles Pratiques Sociales 17(2): 109-25||Canada||Qualitative||Case study||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Ruzek, J.I., Friedman, M.J., Murray, S.||2005||Toward a knowledge management system for postraumatic stress disorder treatment in veterans' healthcare||Psychiatric Annals 35(11): 911-20||USA||Discussion||Discussion||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Bowen, S. & Martens, P.||2005||Demystifying knowledge translation: learning from the community||Journal of Health Services Research & Policy 10: 203-11||Canada||Qualitative||Participatory action research||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Glisson, C. & Schoenwald, S.K.||2005||The ARC organizational and community intervention strategy for implementing evidence-based children's mental health treatments||Mental Health Services Research 7(4): 243-59||USA||Other||Review||Polyad||Family-Provider-Policy maker-Other|
|Jorm, A.F., Christensen, H., Griffiths, K.M.||2005||The impact of beyondblue: the national depression initiative on the Australian public's recognition of depression and beliefs about treatments||Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 39(4): 248-54||Australia||Quantitative||Non-randomized controlled trial||Polyad||Policy maker-Researcher-Other|
|Spaniol, S.||2005||"Learned hopefulness": an arts-based approach to participatory action research||Art Therapy 22(2): 86-91||USA||Qualitative||Participatory action, arts-based, conference format||Polyad||PWLE-Provider-Researcher|
|Perreault, M., Bonin, J.-P., Veilleux, R. et al.||2005||Expérience de formation croisée dans un contexte d'intégration des services en réseau dans le sud-ouest de Montréal||Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health 24(1): 35-49||Canada||Other||Mixed methods, questionnaires and focus groups||Within group||Provider-Provider|
|Garland, A.F., Plemmons, D., Koontz, L.||2006||Research-practice partnership in mental health: lessons from participants||Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research 33(5): 517-28||USA||Qualitative||Semi-structured interviewing||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Hahn, S., Needham, I., Abderhalden, C.||2006||The effect of a training course on mental health nurses' attitudes on the reasons of patient aggression and its management||Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 12(2): 197-204||Switzerland||Quantitative||Quasi-experimental, pre-post test||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Horvitz-Lennon, M., Kilbourne, A.M., Pincus, H.A.||2006||From silos to bridges: meeting the general healthcare needs of adults with severe mental illnesses||Health Affairs 25(3): 659-69||USA||Discussion||Discussion||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Ingadottir, E. & Thome, M.||2006||Evaluation of a web-based course for community nurses on postpartum emotional distress||Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences 20: 86-92||Iceland||Quantitative||Non-randomized controlled trial||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Rinfret-Raynor, M., Dubé, M., Drouin, C.||2006||Le Dépistage de la violence conjugale dans les centre hospitaliers : implantation et évaluation d'un ensemble d'outils||Nouvelles Pratiques Sociales 19(1): 72-90||Canada||Qualitative||Case study||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Wimpenny, K., Forsyth, K., Jones, C., Evans, E., Colley, J.||2006||Group reflective supervision: thinking with theory to develop practice||British Journal of Occupational Therapy 69(9): 423-28||UK||Qualitative||Participatory action research||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Beresford, P. & Branfield, F.||2006||Developing inclusive partnerships: user-defined outcomes, networking and knowledge - a case study||Health and Social Care in the Community 14(5): 436-44||UK||Qualitative||Interviews||Dyad||PWLE-Provider|
|Deegan, P.E. & Drake, R.E.||2006||Shared decision-making and medication management in the recovery process||Psychiatric Services 57(11): 1636-39||USA||Discussion||Discussion||Dyad||PWLE-Provider|
|Hamann, J., Langer, B., Winkler, V. et al.||2006||Shared decision-making for inpatients with schizophrenia||Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 114: 265-73||Germany||Quantitative||Randomized controlled trial||Dyad||PWLE-Provider|
|Jared, R., Adams, J.R., Drake, R.E.||2006||Shared decision-making and evidence-based practice||Community Mental Health Journal 42(1): 87-105||USA||Discussion||Discussion||Dyad||PWLE-Provider|
|Mahone, I.H.||2006||Medication decision-making by persons with serious mental illness||Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. US: ProQuest Information & Learning||USA||Quantitative||Cross-sectional correlational study||Dyad||PWLE-Provider|
|Penn, D.L., Simpson, L.E., Leggett, S., Edie, G., Wood, L.||2006||The development of a website to promote the mental and physical health of sons and daughters of Vietnam veterans of Australia||Journal of Consumer Health on the Internet 10(4): 45-63||Australia||Qualitative||Participatory action||Dyad||PWLE-Researcher|
|Ditrano, C.J., Silverstein, L.B., Bordeaux, L.||2006||Listening to parents' voices: participatory action research in the schools||Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 37: 359-66||USA||Qualitative||Participatory action research||Polyad||Family-Provider-Researcher|
|Knapp, M., Funk, M., Curran, C. et al.||2006||Economic barriers to better mental health practice and policy||Health Policy and Planning 21(3): 157-70||UK||Discussion||Discussion||Polyad||Provider-Policy maker-Other|
|Knightbridge, S.M., King, R., Rolfe, T.J.||2006||Using participatory action research in a community-based initiative addressing complex mental health needs||Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 40(4): 325-32||Australia||Qualitative||Participatory action research||Polyad||PWLE-Family-Provider-Policy maker-Researcher|
|Bluthenthal, R.N., Jones, L., Fackler-Lowrie, N.||2006||Witness for wellness: preliminary findings from a community-academic participatory research initiative||Ethnicity and Disease 16(SI): 18-34||USA||Other||Mixed methods, participatory action research||Polyad||PWLE-Family-Provider-Researcher-Other|
|Thomas, P., Seebohm, P., Henderson, P., Munn-Giddings, C., Yasmeen, S.||2006||Tackling race inequalities: community development, mental health and diversity||Journal of Public Mental Health 5(2): 13-19||Canada||Qualitative||Focus groups||Polyad||PWLE-Policy maker-Researcher|
|Craven, M.A. & Bland, R.||2006||Better practices in collaborative mental healthcare: an analysis of the evidence base||Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 51(SI): 7S-74S||Canada||Other||Systematic review||Polyad||PWLE-Provider-Decision-makers|
|Wills, C.E. & Holmes-Rovne, M.||2006||Integrating decision-making and mental health interventions research: research directions||Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 13(1): 9-25||USA||Discussion||Discussion||Polyad||PWLE-Provider-Policy maker|
|Waddell, C., Shepherd, C.A., Lavis, J.N. et al.||2007||Balancing rigour and relevance: researchers' contributions to children's mental health policy in Canada||Evidence & Policy: A Journal of Research, Debate and Practice 3(2): 181-95||Canada||Qualitative||Interviews||Dyad||Policy maker-Researcher|
|Lesage, A.D.||2007||Les Programmes de premier épisode de schizophrénie et une médecine fondee sur les données factuelles : un cas de syndrome des habits de l'empereur?||Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 32(1): 333-49||Canada||Discussion||Discussion||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Wong, S.Y.S., Cheung, A.K.Y, Lee, A. et al.||2007||Improving general practitioners' interviewing skills in managing patients with depression and anxiety: a randomized controlled clinical trial||Medical Teacher 29: e175-e183||China||Quantitative||Randomized controlled trial||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Brekke, J.S., Ell, K., Palinkas, L.||2007||Translational science at the National Institute of Mental Health: can social work take its rightful place?||Research on Social Work Practice 17(1): 123-33||USA||Discussion||Discussion||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Adams, J.R., Drake, R.E., Wolford, G.L.||2007||Shared decision-making preferences of people with severe mental illness||Psychiatric Services 58: 1219-21||USA||Quantitative||Cross-sectional survey||Dyad||PWLE-Provider|
|Deegan, P.E.||2007||The lived experience of using psychiatric medication in the recovery process and a shared decision-making program to support in the recovery process||Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal 31(1): 62-69||USA||Discussion||Discussion||Dyad||PWLE-Provider|
|Loh, A., Simon, D., Wills, C.E. et al.||2007||The effects of a shared decision-making intervention in primary care of depression: a cluster-randomized controlled trial||Patient Education and Counseling 67(3): 324-32||Germany||Quantitative||Cluster-randomized controlled trial||Dyad||PWLE-Provider|
|Priebe, S., McCabe, R., Bullenkamp, J. et al.||2007||Structured patient-clinician communication and one-year outcome in community mental healthcare||British Journal of Psychiatry 191: 420-26||UK||Quantitative||Cluster-randomized controlled trial||Dyad||PWLE-Provider|
|Schauer, C., Everett, A., del Vecchio, P. et al.||2007||Promoting the value and practice of shared decision-making in mental healthcare||Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal 31(1): 54-61||USA||Discussion||Discussion||Dyad||PWLE-Provider|
|Swanson, K.A., Bastani, R., Rubenstein, L.V. et al.||2007||Effect of mental healthcare and shared decision-making on patient satisfaction in a community sample of patients with depression||Medical Care Research and Review 64(4): 416-30||USA||Quantitative||Cross-sectional survey||Dyad||PWLE-Provider|
|Buist, A., Speelman, C., Hayes, B., Reay, R., Milgrom, J.||2007||Impact of education on women with perinatal depression||Obstetrics & Gynecology 28(1): 49-54||Australia||Quantitative||Pre-post||Dyad||PWLE-Researcher|
|Lucock, M., Barber, R., Jones, A., Lovell, J.||2007||Service users' views of self-help strategies and research in the UK||Journal of Mental Health 16(6): 795-805||UK||Qualitative||Participatory action||Dyad||PWLE-Researcher|
|Cole, N.||2007||Depression awareness: community-based approach||Australian Psychologist 42(2): 161-66||Australia||Quantitative||Pre-post survey||Dyad||Researcher-Other|
|Hallett, J., Brown, G., Maycock, B., Langdon, P.||2007||Changing communities, changing spaces: the challenges of health promotion outreach in cyberspace||Promotion & Education 14(3): 150-54||Australia||Qualitative||Case study, participatory action research||Dyad||Researcher-Other|
|Jacobson, N., Ochocka, J., Wise, J., Janzen, R.||2007||Inspiring knowledge mobilization through a communications policy: the case of a community-university research alliance||Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education and Action 1(1): 99-104||Canada||Qualitative||Participatory action research||Polyad||Family-Provider-Policy maker-Researcher|
|Sax, P.||2007||Finding common ground: parents speak out about family-centered practices||Journal of Systemic Therapies 26(3): 72-90||USA||Qualitative||Participatory action||Polyad||Family-Provider-Researcher|
|Garretsen, H.F.L., Bongers, I.M.B., Roo, A.A. de et al.||2007||Bridging the gap between science and practice: do applied academic centres contribute to a solution?||Journal of Comparative Social Welfare 23(1): 49-59||Netherlands||Discussion||Discussion, case examples||Polyad||Provider-Policy maker-Researcher|
|Levesque, P., Davidson, S., Kidder, K.||2007||Knowledge exchange for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder research: an integrated evidence and knowledge exchange framework leading to more effective research dissemination practices||Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 16(2): 51-56||Canada||Discussion||Discussion||Polyad||Provider-Policy maker-Researcher-Other|
|Nagel, T. & Thompson, C.||2007||AIMHI NT "mental health storyteller mob": developing stories in mental health||Australian e-Journal for the Advancement of Mental Health 6(2): 1-6||Australia||Qualitative||Participatory action, survey||Polyad||PWLE-Family-Provider-Policy maker-Researcher|
|Hoolihan, B., Grosvenor, J., Kurtz, H. et al.||2007||Utilizing technology to raise mental health literacy in small rural towns||Learning in Health and Social Care 6(3): 145-55||Australia||Quantitative||Cross-sectional survey||Polyad||PWLE-Provider-Other|
|Moore, D.E., Niebler, S.E., Schlundt, D.G. et al.||2007||A conceptual model for using action inquiry technologies to address disparities in depression||Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions 27: 55-64||USA||Discussion||Discussion, participatory action research, conceptual model||Polyad||PWLE-Provider-Policy maker|
|Cleary, M., Walter, G., Luscombe, G.||2007||Spreading the word: disseminating research results to patients and carers||Acta Neuropsychiatrica 19(4): 224-29||Australia||Discussion||Discussion||Polyad||PWLE-Provider-Policy maker-Researcher|
|Janzen, R., Nelson, G., Hausfather, N., Ochocka, J.||2007||Capturing system-level activities and impacts of mental health consumer-run organizations||American Journal of Community Psychology 39(3/4): 287-99||USA||Other||Mixed methods, participatory action research||Polyad||PWLE-Provider-Policy maker-Researcher-Other|
|Spring, B.||2007||Evidence-based practice in clinical psychology: what it is, why it matters - what you need to know||Journal of Clinical Psychology 63(7): 611-31||USA||Discussion||Discussion||Polyad||PWLE-Provider-Researcher|
|Lind, C.||2007||The power of adolescent voices: co-researchers in mental health promotion||Educational Action Research 15(3): 371-83||Canada||Qualitative||Participatory action||Polyad||PWLE-Provider-Researcher-Other|
|Bell, J.S., Aslani, P., McLachlan, A.J., Whitehead, P., Chen, T.||2007||Mental health case conferences in primary care: content and treatment decision-making||Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy 3(1): 86-103||Canada||Qualitative||Case conferences||Within group||Provider-Provider|
|Cohen, J. & Mannarino, A.P.||2008||Disseminating and implementing trauma-focused CBT in community settings||Trauma Violence Abuse 9(4): 214-26||USA||Other||Review||Dyad||Provider-Policy maker|
|Barwick, M.A., Boydell, K.M., Stasiulis, E. et al.||2008||Research utilization among children's mental health providers||Implementation Science 3(19)||Canada||Quantitative||Cross-sectional survey||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Bilsker, D., Anderson, J., Samra, J. et al.||2008||Behavioural interventions in primary care: an implementation trial||Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health 27: 179-89||Canada||Quantitative||Pre-post||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Boydell, K.M., Stasiulis, E., Barwick, M. et al.||2008||Challenges of knowledge translation in rural communities: the case of rural children's mental health||Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health 27(1): 49-63||Canada||Qualitative||Focus groups||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Chagnon, F., Houle, J., Daigle, M. et al.||2008||Application des connaissances scientifiques en prevention du suicide : vérification d'une stratégie fondée sur la communauté de pratique||Frontiéres 21(1): 90-97||Canada||Qualitative||Community of practice||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Self, R., Rigby, A., Leggett, C., Paxton, R.||2008||Clinical Decision Support Tool: a rational needs-based approach to making clinical decisions||Journal of Mental Health 17(1): 33-48||UK||Other||Mixed methods, participatory action, cluster analysis, concurrent validity||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Thompson, A., Sullivan, S.A., Barley, M. et al.||2008||The DEBIT trial: an intervention to reduce antipsychotic polypharmacy prescribing in adult psychiatry wards - a cluster-randomised controlled trial||Psychological Medicine 38: 705-15||UK||Quantitative||Pragmatic cluster-randomized controlled trial||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Deegan, P., Rapp, C., Holter, M. et al.||2008||A program to support shared decision-making in an outpatient psychiatric medication clinic||Psychiatric Services 59(6): 603-05||USA||Qualitative||Focus groups||Dyad||PWLE-Provider|
|Hamann, J., Mendel, R.T., Fink, B. et al.||2008||Patients' and psychiatrists' perceptions of clinical decisions during schizophrenia treatment||Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 196(4): 329-32||Germany||Other||Mixed methods, interviews and questionnaires||Dyad||PWLE-Provider|
|Stringer, B., Van Meijel, B., De Vree, W. et al.||2008||User involvement in mental healthcare: the role of nurses||Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 15: 678-83||Netherlands||Other||Literature review||Dyad||PWLE-Provider|
|Moll, S. & Clements, E.P.||2008||Workplace mental health: developing an employer resource through partnerships in knowledge translation||Occupational Therapy Now 10(5): 17-19||Canada||Discussion||Discussion||Dyad||Researcher-Other|
|Han, S.S. & Weiss, B.||2008||Sustainability of teacher implementation of school-based mental health programs||Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 33(6): 665-79||USA||Other||Review||Polyad||Provider-Policy maker-Other|
|Grol, R.||2008||Knowledge transfer in mental healthcare: how do we bring evidence into day-to-day practice?||Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 53(5): 275-76||Canada||Discussion||Discussion||Polyad||Provider-Policy maker-Researcher|
|Unutzer, J.||2008||Evidence-based treatments for anxiety and depression: lost in translation?||Depression and Anxiety 25(9): 726-29||USA||Discussion||Discussion||Polyad||Provider-Policy maker-Researcher|
|Smolders, M., Laurant, M., Roberge, P. et al.||2008||Knowledge transfer and improvement of primary and ambulatory care for patients with anxiety||Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 53(5): 277-93||Netherlands||Other||Review with meta-analysis||Polyad||Provider-Policy maker-Researcher|
|Westhues, A., Ochocka, J., Jacobson, N., Simich, L., Maiter, S., Janzen, R. et al.||2008||Developing theory from complexity: reflections on a collaborative mixed-method participatory action research study||Qualitative Health Research 18(5): 701-17||Canada||Qualitative||Participatory action, grounded theory, abduction, synthesis||Polyad||PWLE-Family-Provider-Researcher-Other|
|Lindamer, L.A., Lebowitz, B.D., Hough, R.L.||2008||Public-academic partnerships: improving care for older persons with schizophrenia through an academic-community partnership||Psychiatric Services 59(3): 236-39||USA||Discussion||Case example||Polyad||PWLE-Provider-Policy maker-Researcher|
|Chambers, D.A.||2008||Advancing the science of implementation: a workshop summary||Administration and Policy in Mental Health & Mental Health Services Research 35 (1/2): 3-10||USA||Discussion||Discussion||Polyad||PWLE-Provider-Researcher|
|Patel, S.R., Bakken, S., Ruland, C.||2008||Recent advances in shared decision-making for mental health||Current Opinion in Psychiatry 21(6): 606-12||USA||Other||Review||Polyad||PWLE-Provider-Researcher|
|Pickett-Schenk, S.A., Lippincott, R.C., Bennett, C. et al.||2008||Improving knowledge about mental illness through family-led education: the journey of hope||Psychiatric Services 59(1): 49-56||USA||Quantitative||Randomized trial with waiting list control group||Within group||Family-Family|
|Kimberly, J. & Cook, J.M.||2008||Organizational measurement and the implementation of innovation in mental health services||Administration and Policy in Mental Health & Mental Health Research 35: 11-20||USA||Other||Review||Within group||Provider-Provider|
|Pignatiello, A., Boydell, K., Teshima, J., Volpe, T.||2008||Supporting primary care through paediatric telepsychiatry||Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health 27(2): 139-51||Canada||Qualitative||Participant evaluation||Within group||Provider-Provider|
|Franx, G., Kroon, H., Grimshaw, J. et al.||2008||Organizational change to transfer knowledge and improve quality and outcomes of care for patients with severe mental illness: a systematic overview of reviews||Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 53(5): 294-305||Netherlands||Other||Systematic review, overview of reviews||Within group||Researcher-Researcher|
|Pullmann, M.D.||2009||Participatory research in systems of care for children's mental health||American Journal of Community Psychology 44(1/2): 43-53||USA||Discussion||Discussion, participatory action framework||Dyad||Family-Researcher|
|Danseco, E., Sundar, P., Kasprzak, S. et al.||2009||Are we there yet? Evaluation and the knowledge translation journey||Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 18(1): 7-15||Canada||Discussion||Discussion, case example||Dyad||Policy maker-Researcher|
|Isaac, M., Elias, B., Katz, L.Y., Belik, S., Deane, F.P., Enns, M.W., Sareen, J.||2009||Gatekeeper training as a preventative intervention for suicide: a systematic review||Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 54 (4): 260-68||Canada||Other||Systematic review||Dyad||Provider-Other|
|Stolee, P., McAiney, C.A., Hillier, L.M. et al.||2009||Sustained transfer of knowledge to practice in long-term care: facilitators and barriers of a mental health learning initiative||Gerontology & Geriatrics Education 30(1): 1-20||Canada||Qualitative||Interviews||Dyad||Provider-Policy maker|
|Barwick, M.A., Peters, J., Boydell, K.J.||2009||Getting to uptake: do communities of practice support the implementation of evidence-based practice?||Canadian Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 18: 16-29||Canada||Quantitative||Randomized controlled trial||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Brekke, J.S., Phillips, E., Pancake, L. et al.||2009||Implementation practice and implementation research: a report from the field||Research on Social Work Practice 19S: 592-601||USA||Discussion||Discussion||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Happell, B., Moxham, L., Reid-Searl, K., Dwyer, T., Kahl, J., Morris, J. et al.||2009||Promoting mental healthcare in a rural paediatric unit through participatory action research||Australian Journal of Rural Health 17(3): 155-60||Australia||Qualitative||Focus groups||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Harpaz-Rotem, I. & Rosenheck, R.A.||2009||Tracing the flow of knowledge: geographic variability in the diffusion of prazosin use for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder nationally in the Department of Veterans Affairs||Archives of General Psychiatry 66(4): 417-21||USA||Quantitative||Geographic surveillance, administrative data analysis||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Lamont, S., Walker, P., Brunero, S.||2009||"Teaching an old dog new tricks": a practice development approach to organizational change in mental health||Practice Development in Health Care 8(2): 65-76||Australia||Qualitative||Participatory action||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Nadeau, L.||2009||Evaluation préliminaire d'un projet de soins concertés en santé mentale jeunesse á Montréal : faire face á l'incertitude institutionnelle et culturelle||Santé Mentale au Québec 34(1): 127-42||Canada||Qualitative||Case study||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Perreault, M., Perreault, N., Withaeuper, D. et al.||2009||Le Défi du traitement et de la prévention des troubles concomitants sur la base de données probantes||Criminologie 42(1): 91-114||Canada||Discussion||Discussion||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Robitaille, D. & Boudreault, D.||2009||Expérience d'une équipe de santé mentale de premiére ligne dans l'optimisation des soins||Santé Mentale au Québec 34(1): 207-19||Canada||Qualitative||Case study||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Ward, V.L., House, A.O., Hamer, S.||2009||Knowledge brokering: exploring the process of transferring knowledge into action||BMC Health Services Research 16: 9-12||UK||Other||Description of research plan||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Applbaum, K.||2009||"Consumers are patients!" Shared decision-making and treatment: non-compliance as a business opportunity||Transcultural Psychiatry 46(1): 107-30||USA||Discussion||Discussion||Dyad||PWLE-Provider|
|Drake, R.E., Cimpean, D., Torrey, WC.||2009||Shared decision-making in mental health: prospects for personalized medicine||Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience 11(4): 455-63||USA||Discussion||Discussion||Dyad||PWLE-Provider|
|Houle, J., Lespérance, F., Beaulieu, M.D.||2009||Partager la décision dans le traitement de la dépression||Le Médecin du Québec 44(10): 27-31||Canada||Discussion||Discussion||Dyad||PWLE-Provider|
|Joosten, E.A.G. et al.||2009||Shared decision-making reduces drug use and psychiatric severity in substance-dependent patients||Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 78(4): 245-53||Netherlands||Quantitative||Randomized controlled trial||Dyad||PWLE-Provider|
|Vatne, S., Bjornerem, H., Hoem, E.||2009||One approach to improving the care for depression and anxiety disorders has been to "package" evidence-based efficacious treatment components into effective programs of care||Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences 23: 84-92||Norway||Qualitative||Interviews||Dyad||PWLE-Provider|
|McDaid, S.||2009||An equality of condition framework for user involvement in mental health policy and planning: evidence from participatory action research||Disability & Society 24(4): 461-74||Ireland||Qualitative||Participatory action||Dyad||PWLE-Researcher|
|Oh, E., Jorm, A.F., Wright, A.||2009||Perceived helpfulness of websites for mental health information||Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology 44(4): 293-99||Australia||Quantitative||Cross-sectional survey||Dyad||Researcher-Oher|
|Bapat, S., Jorm, A., Lawrence, K.||2009||Evaluation of a mental health literacy training program for junior sporting clubs||Australasian Psychiatry 17: 475-79||Australia||Quantitative||Pre-post||Dyad||Researcher-Other|
|Blignault, I., Woodland, L., Ponzio, V. et al.||2009||Using a multifaceted community intervention to reduce stigma about mental illness in an Australian Macedonian community||Health Promotion Journal of Australia 20(3): 227-33||Australia||Quantitative||Pre-post||Dyad||Researcher-Other|
|López, Steven R., Lara, M., Kopelowicz, A., Solano, S., Foncerrada, H.||2009||La CLAve to increase psychosis literacy of Spanish-speaking community residents and family caregivers||Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 77(4): 763-74||USA||Quantitative||Pre-post||Polyad||Family-Researcher-Other|
|Chorpita, B.F. & Regan, J.||2009||Dissemination of effective mental health treatment procedures: maximizing the return on a significant investment||Behaviour Research and Therapy 47(11): 990-93||USA||Discussion||Discussion||Polyad||Provider-Policy maker-Researcher|
|Luck, J., Hagigi, F., Parker, L.E., Yano, E.M., Rubenstein, L.V., Kirchner, J.E.||2009||A social marketing approach to implementing evidence-based practice in VHA QUERI: the TIDES depression collaborative care model||Implementation Science 4: 64||USA||Qualitative||Case study||Polyad||Provider-Policy maker-Researcher|
|Perreault, M., Wiethaueper, D., Perreault, N., Bonin, J.-P, Brown, T.G., Brunaud, H.||2009||Meilleures pratiques et formation dans le contexte du continuum des services en santé mentale et en toxicomanie : le programme de formation croisée du sud-ouest de Montréal||Santé Mentale au Québec 34(1): 143-60||Canada||Qualitative||Case study||Polyad||Provider-Researcher-Other|
|Curran, J. & Newton, M.||2009||Theme issue on knowledge translation||Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 18(1): 2-3||Canada||Discussion||Discussion, editorial||Polyad||PWLE-Family-Provider-Policy maker-Researcher|
|Harrison, A., & Brandling, J.||2009||Improving mental healthcare for older people within a general hospital in the UK||Nursing & Health Sciences 11(3): 293-300||UK||Qualitative||Participatory action research||Polyad||PWLE-Family-Provider-Researcher|
|Manion, I., Buchanan, D.H., Cheng, M. et al.||2009||Embedding evidence-based practice in child and youth mental health in Ontario||Evidence & Policy: A Journal of Research, Debate & Practice 5(2): 141-53||Canada||Discussion||Discussion, case examples||Polyad||PWLE-Family-Provider-Researcher-Other|
|de Wolff, A., Cabezas, P., Chamberlain, L. et al.||2009||The creation of "We Are Neighbours": participatory research and recovery||Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health 28(2): 61-72||Canada||Qualitative||Participatory action research||Polyad||PWLE-Policy maker-Researcher|
|Mitton, C., Adair, C.E., McKenzie, E., Patten, S., Waye-Perry, B., Smith, N.||2009||Designing a knowledge transfer and exchange strategy for the Alberta Depression Initiative: contributions of qualitative research with key stakeholders||International Journal of Mental Health Systems 3(1): 11||Canada||Qualitative||Focus groups||Polyad||PWLE-Provider-Policy maker|
|McGrath, P.J., Lingley-Pottie, E., Thurston, C., McLean, C.||2009||Integrated knowledge translation in mental health: family help as an example||Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 18: 30-37||Canada||Qualitative||Case study||Polyad||PWLE-Provider-Policy maker-Researcher|
|Drake, R.E., Wilkniss, S.M., Frounfelker, R.L., et al.||2009||The Thresholds-Dartmouth partnership and research on shared decision-making||Psychiatric Services 60(2): 142-44||USA||Discussion||Discussion||Polyad||PWLE-Provider-Researcher|
|Lyons, J.S.||2009||Knowledge creation through total clinical outcomes management: a practice-based evidence solution to address some of the challenges of knowledge translation||Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 18(1): 38-45||Canada||Discussion||Discussion, case sample of KE framework||Polyad||PWLE-Provider-Researcher|
|Maar, M.A., Erskine, B., McGregor, L., Larose, T.L., Sutherland, M.E., Graham, D. et al.||2009||Innovations on a shoestring: a study of a collaborative community-based Aboriginal mental health service model in rural Canada||International Journal of Mental Health Systems 3: 27||Canada||Qualitative||Participatory action, ethnographic||Polyad||PWLE-Provider-Researcher|
|Gozlan, G. Acef, S., Petitqueux-Glaser, C.||2009||Vers des soins intégrés en santé mentale: l'expérience du réseau Prépsy||Santé Mentale au Québec 34(1): 221-38||France||Discussion||Case example||Within group||Provider-Provider|
|Hamilton, A.B., Cohen, A.N., Young, A.S.||2009||Organizational readiness in specialty mental healthcare||Journal of General Internal Medicine 25 (Suppl. 1): 27-31||USA||Other||Mixed methods, questionnaire and semi-structured interviews||Within group||Provider-Provider|
|Proctor, E.K., Landsverk, J., Aarons, G. et al.||2009||Implementation research in mental health services: an emerging science with conceptual, methodological, and training challenges||Administration and Policy in Mental Health & Mental Health Services Research 36(1): 24-34||USA||Discussion||Discussion||Within group||Researcher-Researcher|
|Lévesque, L., Ducharme, F., Caron, C. et al.||2010||A partnership approach to service needs assessment with family caregivers of an aging relative living at home: a qualitative analysis of the experiences of caregivers and practitioners||International Journal of Nursing Studies 47(7): 876-87||Canada||Qualitative||Thematic analysis||Dyad||Family-Provider|
|Byrne, M.K., Willis, A., Deane, F.P. et al.||2010||Training inpatient mental health staff how to enhance patient engagement with medications: Medication Alliance training and dissemination outcomes in a large US mental health hospital||Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16(1): 114-20||USA||Quantitative||Pre-post||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Moxham, L., Dwyer, T., Happell, B., Reid-Searl, K., Kahl, J., Morris, J., et al.||2010||Recognising our role: improved confidence of general nurses providing care to young people with a mental illness in a rural paediatric unit||Journal of Clinical Nursing 19(9/10): 1434-42||Australia||Qualitative||Participatory action||Dyad||Provider-Researcher|
|Gray, R., White, J., Schulz, M. et al.||2010||Enhancing medication adherence in people with schizophrenia: an international programme of research||International Journal of Mental Health Nursing 19(1): 36-44||UK||Other||Mixed methods, concept mapping||Dyad||PWLE-Provider|
|Glisson, C., Schoenwald, S.K., Hemmelgarn, A. et al.||2010||Randomized trial of MST and ARC in a two-level evidence-based treatment implementation strategy||Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 78(4): 537-50||USA||Quantitative||Randomized controlled trial||Polyad||Family-Provider-Policy maker-Other|
|Duncan, E., Best, C., Hagen, S.||2010||Shared decision-making interventions for people with mental health conditions||Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (January) 20(1)||UK||Other||Systematic review||Polyad||PWLE-Provider-Other|
|Lane et al.||2010||Des guides novateurs pour soutenir l'amélioration des pratiques en CSSS||Psychologie Québec 27(1): 31-33||Canada||Discussion||Discussion||Polyad||PWLE-Provider-Policy maker-Researcher|
Discussion and Conclusion
Over the past decade, we found an exponential increase in the number of publications focused on KT in mental health. This increase appears to be consistent with growing interest in and awareness of this topic among the research community (e.g., OMHAKEN 2011).
The large proportion of publications (42%) that were found to be of Canadian origin may be related to the endorsement of the importance of KT by Canadian research organizations such as the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation (Lomas 2000) and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (Graham and Tetroe 2009).
The publications we identified covered a wide range of research approaches and designs. A large proportion (59%) were discussion papers, often advocating for the importance of KT in mental health services or advancing theoretical frameworks. However, there were also sizeable numbers of studies that applied qualitative, quantitative and mixed-method designs.
Papers that addressed the provider–researcher dyad tended to examine the effectiveness of efforts to change knowledge or behaviour among healthcare providers through KT interventions, often using an implementation science paradigm. Of these, only five studies report no improvement (Azocar et al. 2003; Goldberg et al. 1998; Lin et al. 2001; Ray et al. 1987; Thompson et al. 2000). The remaining studies indicate that carefully planned KT produces meaningful improvement in knowledge and practice regarding care for mental health problems (e.g., Avorn et al. 1992; Badger et al. 1991; Baker et al. 2001; B Brown et al. 2000; Gask et al. 1998; Gerrity et al. 1999; Hannaford et al. 1996; Mason and Freemantle 1999; Naismith et al. 2001; Ray et al. 1987; Rutz et al. 1992; van Eijk et al. 2001; Worrall et al. 1999). It is worth highlighting several Canadian studies:
- Barwick and colleagues (2009) randomly assigned mental health clinicians to a community of practice (CoP) or practice as usual (PaU) condition to support training in a newly implemented level of functioning outcome measurement tool. Practitioners in the CoP condition demonstrated greater use of the tool in practice, better content knowledge and greater satisfaction with implementation supports than PaU participants.
- Chagnon and colleagues (2008) helped develop a community of practice for researchers and providers working in the field of suicide prevention. Over a one-year period, a series of interventions designed to facilitate KT between members were carried out; several platforms (meetings, websites, listservs, online discussions and forums) allowed members to appraise their practices and integrate new knowledge on suicide prevention–related issues. The study by Chagnon and colleagues (2008) examined a CoP that was largely virtual in nature, whereas the study by Barwick and colleagues (2009) addressed an in vivo (face-to-face) CoP.
- In a study by Worrall and colleagues (1999), family physicians were randomly assigned to a three-hour, case-based educational session on clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for depression and access to a psychiatrist for consultation or to a control group that received the CPG without the educational session or consultation. While there was no difference in rates of diagnosis or prescription, more patients in the intervention group were taking antidepressants at six-month follow-up, and referrals to psychiatry were slightly higher for this group.
- Bilsker and colleagues (2008) studied implementation of a one-hour educational session outlining interventions for depression and risky alcohol use and delivered to a sample of 85 family physicians. The interventions used a supported self-management approach and included free patient access to appropriate self-management resources. The study initially evaluated physicians' implementation of these interventions over a two-month period. Physician uptake of the depression intervention was significantly greater than uptake of the risky drinking intervention (32% versus 10%). A follow-up at six months post-training (depression intervention only) demonstrated fairly good maintenance of intervention delivery.
In addition to these Canadian studies cited above, research studies conducted in the United States and other countries have also examined KT interventions that seek to enhance primary mental healthcare services and improve outcomes of common mental health problems, primarily depressive disorders (e.g., Brown et al. 2000; Gerrity et al. 1999; Hodges et al. 2001; Naismith et al. 2001). More "active" KT approaches, such as implementation and dissemination activities described by Lomas (1993), have been found to be more effective in producing behavioural change and improved outcomes when compared with "passive" approaches described by Lomas (1993) as diffusion, such as mailing out clinical guidelines to primary care physician offices or posting information on a physician association website. A study in the United Kingdom (Baker et al. 2001) randomized family physicians to an intervention group that received a tailored implementation designed to assist them in adopting new clinical guidelines for treatment of depression. They were found to have adopted the new practices, and their patients with depression had better outcomes than those treated by a control group of family physicians who were notified of the new guidelines but did not receive the targeted KT implementation efforts.
Of the 115 studies classified as dyadic knowledge exchange, 24 (21%) involved interactions between the PWLE–Provider dyad. KT between these two groups, in the form of shared decision-making, has become an increasingly common focus within the literature. As described by Drake and colleagues (2009):
The healthcare provider (often a team of professionals) brings expertise in understanding the medical problem, the possible interventions and the potential benefits and risks of alternatives. The patient (often assisted by family or support network members) brings expertise related to understanding the individual's values, goals, supports, and preferences.
Shared decision-making between PWLE and providers has also been studied through a series of randomized controlled trials examining the impacts of shared decision-making upon treatment satisfaction, quality of life and symptomatic improvement for schizophrenia, depression and substance use disorder (Hamann et al. 2006; Joosten et al. 2009; Loh et al. 2007; Malm et al. 2003; Priebe et al. 2007; Van Korff et al. 2003; Van Os et al. 2004). Overall, these studies indicate that shared decision-making enhances individuals' sense of involvement and likelihood of adhering to treatment. However, studies have not yet been able to demonstrate long-term benefits or improvements in function.
Participatory action research designs are well utilized in studies that involve PWLE. These approaches seek to incorporate the knowledge and skills of PWLE into various facets of research process, such as design, planning, implementation, analysis, reporting and dissemination. For example, Ross and colleagues (2003) worked with a group of young women to design and conduct focus groups with 48 adolescent girls across Ontario eliciting a set of themes helpful in planning interventions for adolescent depression. Participatory action research may be challenging to accomplish. McDaid (2009) worked with a group of participants and identified the following barriers to their equal participation: unequal cultural, physical, mental and economic resources, time and power; discrimination; and lack of respect for their experiential knowledge and emotional expression. Considerable dedication and commitment is often required to accomplish effective participatory action research.
Most publications concerning KT between the researcher–policy maker dyad comprise theoretical discussions of key issues affecting KT between these stakeholder groups. The lack of evaluative research has been identified by Mitton and colleagues (2008) as a major problem:
It is not hard to find opinion pieces and anecdotal reports about how to do KTE [knowledge transfer and exchange], but a limited reporting of actual KTE implementation and even more limited formal evaluation leaves those seeking to develop their own KTE efforts at a loss for evidence based strategies.
Some empirical studies of mental health–related KT between researchers and policy makers have been conducted in Canada, using qualitative methods and gathering data from focus groups or through stakeholder interviews:
- Waddell and colleagues (2007) report results of comprehensive interviews with researchers and funding decision-makers in order to identify barriers to KT in children's mental health policy efforts. Identified barriers included researchers' lack of motivation to maximize KT and neglect of strategies to foster knowledge uptake.
- Goering and colleagues (2003) present a case study of a project to enhance KT between researchers and policy makers by partnership between a research unit and a public agency for mental health policy. This included regular meetings between researchers and policy makers, initiation of interactive research projects and collaborative dissemination of research findings. The formalization of a structured agreement with shared activities and commitments provides an example of organizational linkage and exchange as described by Lomas (2000). A framework is shared that may be used by others seeking to build stable and mutually beneficial organizational relationships.
A number of studies address KT between researchers and the general public. Mental health–related KT in this domain generally involves the translation of scientific evidence via social marketing campaigns, websites, various communications media (including social media) to the general population, often seeking to increase mental health literacy. A recent Canadian report concluded that although Canadians are found to have a relatively high level of mental health literacy compared to citizens of other countries, "[s]tigma and discrimination toward persons with mental illness continue to be problematic in Canadian society" (CAMIMH 2008).
There is an informative empirical literature concerning the effectiveness of interventions to enhance the mental health literacy of general populations (e.g., Jorm et al. 2003; Wright et al. 2006; Goldney and Fisher 2008). Perhaps the most ambitious attempt to increase mental health literacy at a population level was the beyondblue program in Australia, which focused on depression awareness and beliefs. This extensive national campaign, undertaken over several years, was associated with improvements in knowledge by the general public about depression and its remediation (Jorm et al. 2005).
A notable group of publications (61; 33%) was concerned with the exchange of knowledge among multiple stakeholders. Most of these publications report on qualitative investigation of KT among participant groups. We referred to these studies as polyadic, emphasizing their inclusion of multiple types of participants (i.e., polyads) in the KT process. The following are three Canadian examples:
- Westhues and colleagues (2008) sought to improve mental health service delivery to people of diverse cultural backgrounds. They engaged community members of various cultural and linguistic groups, service providers, governmental organizations and researchers. Working groups facilitated the concentration of multiple types of knowledge, subsequently exchanged among groups. This approach allowed a diverse group of stakeholders to create a framework for improving mental healthcare across cultural–linguistic communities.
- McGrath and colleagues (2009) applied an "integrated KT" strategy (i.e., engaging all stakeholders in KT at the beginning of the project and keeping them intimately involved throughout) to the implementation of a distance-based children's mental health program. They involved a wide range of participants (e.g., physicians, policy makers, service users and others) in all project phases, enabling ongoing KT among diverse stakeholder groups. The authors concluded that the integrated KT strategy was effective "in supporting the transfer of this research project into clinical practice" (McGrath et al. 2009: 30).
- Perreault and colleagues (2005, 2009) initiated a cross-training program for providers from different networks or sectors (e.g., mental health, substance use, police) who interact with people with concomitant mental health and substance use problems. Providers led or engaged in various training activities, including joint workshops and meetings, researcher presentations and staff rotations. Aiming to improve coordination and integration of care, the program also promoted shared knowledge, understanding and feelings of interdependence among participants.
A small but intriguing cluster of publications focus upon KT at the organizational rather than individual level (Isett and Provan 2004; Morrissey et al. 1997, 2005; Provan et al. 2005; Provan and Milward 1995, 2001). This type of research has been referred to as network analysis:
Network analysis allows for the examination and comparison of relationships between two organizations (dyads), among clusters or cliques of organizations, and among all of the organizations comprised by the network. (Provan et al. 2005: 605)
For example, Provan and Milward (1995) conducted a network analysis of four community mental health systems engaged in integrated service delivery, each consisting of a network of mental health service providers, social service providers and funding agencies. Networks were evaluated for the strength of linkage and exchange among organizations and effectiveness of service delivery. The researchers found that network effectiveness could be explained by various structural and contextual factors, such as the degree of integration and stability that exists within the network.
Relevant publications tended to fall into a number of different "pockets" or thematic areas within the scientific literature. These include implementation science, community-based and participatory-action research, shared decision-making studies, mental health literacy research, network analysis and studies directly addressing KT. This full range of relevant literature is scattered across a variety of disparate research themes that are not usually assembled or considered together.
Overall, there appears to be a robust interest in addressing KT in relation to mental health issues, with strong representation from Canadian stakeholder groups. This appears to have been a burgeoning area of study in recent years, and valuable information is now becoming available to help guide activities and efforts aimed at improving various facets of the mental health "system."
In the field of mental health, KT approaches appear to be undergoing a paradigm shift. Researchers continue to play a unique role in generating, disseminating and exchanging valuable scientific knowledge, but they have been joined by other key stakeholder groups such as policy makers, healthcare providers, family members and, importantly, people with lived experience of mental health problems. The value of experiential knowledge is better recognized (Caron-Flinterman et al. 2005), and KT is better understood to be a diverse and sometimes complex set of steps that involve the participation of diverse actors. This shift has been described explicitly in a framework document of the Canadian Mental Health Association (n.d.) and may prove to have far-reaching effects upon mental health research, policy and practice.
Limitations of the current scoping review include the possibility that some relevant publications may not have been located despite use of systematic search methods and iterative steps to minimize omissions. Application of the inclusion criteria used in selecting studies for review may have been imperfect despite high ratings on tests of inter-rater reliability, and there was inevitable subjectivity in the decision-making process when considering whether studies were or were not relevant. The current findings cannot be assumed to be valid in relation to low-income countries, as we excluded studies that focused on KT in such regions. In addition, we recognize the possibility that the results of this process may not be truly comprehensive, owing to the ambiguity surrounding conceptualizations of KT in combination with the relative isolation of some KT research areas.
Échange de connaissances en santé mentale : analyse de la situation
On considère que les efforts d'échange de connaissances (EC) dans le domaine de la santé mentale sont essentiels pour accélérer la mise en œuvre de diverses avancées dans la recherche, les politiques et la pratique. Une analyse de la situation des activités d'EC dans le domaine de la santé mentale a été effectuée pour éclairer la création d'un Centre d'échange des connaissances étant initié par la Commission de la santé mentale du Canada. Une recherche systématique des publications en anglais et en français a permis de répertorier 187 titres qui répondaient aux critères d'inclusion. La littérature pertinente était classée sous diverses thématiques de recherche: science de mise en œuvre, activités de recherches participatives axées sur la communauté, études sur la prise de décision partagée, recherche sur les compétences informationnelles en santé mentale, analyse des réseaux ou études qui traitent directement de l'EC. Cette littérature porte principalement sur les efforts d'EC qui mettent en jeu quelques paires d'intervenants particuliers. Un changement de paradigme présentement en cours a donné lieu à une vue d'ensemble de plus en plus vaste, en incorporant une plus grande gamme de participants et en valorisant de plus en plus les connaissances expérientielles.
About the Author(s)
Elliot M. Goldner, MHSc, MD Professor, Centre for Applied Research in Mental Health & Addiction Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University Vancouver, BC
Victoria Jeffries, MA Student, Centre for Applied Research in Mental Health & Addiction Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University Vancouver, BC
Dan Bilsker, PhD Adjunct Professor, Centre for Applied Research in Mental Health & Addiction Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University Vancouver, BC
Emily Jenkins, RN, MPH Student, School of Nursing, University of British Columbia Vancouver, BC
Matthew Menear, MPH Student, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal Montreal, QC
Lisa Petermann, PhD Director, Knowledge Exchange Centre Mental Health Commission of Canada Calgary, AB
Correspondence may be directed to: Dr. Elliot M. Goldner, Professor, Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Harbour Centre, 2400 – 515 West Hastings St., Vancouver, BC V6B 5K3; tel. 778-782-5148; e-mail: email@example.com.
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