[This article was originally published in Healthcare Papers, 13(2) ]

In order to respond effectively to the health needs of Canadians, healthcare planners must directly consider these needs when planning and delivering services. However, Canada's various healthcare systems have traditionally been organized based on historical levels of service provision as opposed to population health needs. A number of innovations in care delivery redesign in Canada have already been developed as part of efforts to foster a more effective and sustainable healthcare system. This paper presents two of these as case studies illustrating some of the main challenges in trying to identify and address healthcare needs, as well as some potential solutions to those challenges.