Medication errors involving antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are not well studied but have the potential to cause significant harm. We investigated the occurrence of medication incidents in Canadian hospitals that involve AEDs, their severity and contributing factors by analyzing data from two national databases. Our multi-incident analysis revealed that while medication errors were rarely fatal, errors do occur of which some are serious. Medication incidents were most commonly caused by dose omissions, the dose or its frequency being incorrect and the wrong AED being given. Our analysis could augment quality-improvement initiatives by medication safety administrators to reduce AED medication incidents in hospitals.