AbstractSchistosoma haematobium infection is endemic in Nigeria, with substantial transmissions in all the states of the federation and a high prevalence rate in schools. Literature has linked bladder cancer, mostly squamous cell type, with long-term S. haematobium infections. The objective of this descriptive study was to screen exfoliated cells in the urine of S. haematobium-infected patients for squamous cell abnormalities through cytopathological examinations. Study participants were drawn from Imala Odo, a community near Oyan Dam in Abeokuta North Local Government Area, Ogun state, Southwest Nigeria. Due to a considerable day-to-day variation of S. haematobium eggs in urine, 3 rounds of 200 ml of urine samples were collected on 3 different days from 32 infected patients and 10 uninfected controls and examined. Cytological preparations of the infected 15 males and 8 females and 10 controls (5 males and 5 females) were screened for squamous cell abnormalities. Severely dysplastic to frankly malignant squamous cells were observed in 1 (3.1%) male and 2 (6.3%) females, while no abnormality was observed in the controls.
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