Longwoods Publishing Corporation


Jason M. Sutherland, BA, MSc, PhD
Professor, Centre for Health Services and Policy Research, University of British Columbia,, Vancouver, BC

Senior Editor

François Béland, PHD
Professor, Department of Health Administration, Faculté de médecine, Université de Montréal, Member, Groupe de recherche interdisciplinaire en santé (GRIS), Co-Director, Groupe de recherche Université de Montréal–Université McGill sur les personnes âgées, Montréal, QC


Raisa B. Deber, PHD
Professor, Institute of Health Policy, Management & Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON

Joel Lexchin, MSC, MD
Professor and Associate Chair, School of Health Policy and Management, Faculty of Health, York University, Emergency Department, University Health Network, Toronto, ON

Claude Sicotte, PHD
Professor, Department of Health Administration, Faculty of medicine, Université de Montréal, Researcher, Groupe de recherche interdisciplinaire en santé (GRIS), Montréal, QC

Contributing Editor

Steven Lewis
President, Access Consulting Ltd., Saskatoon (temporarily in Melbourne, Australia); Adjunct Professor of Health Policy, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC

Editorial Director

Dianne Foster-Kent

Copy Editing

KnowledgeWorks Global Ltd.


Éric Bergeron


Nathalie Legros

Editorial Advisory Board

Toni Ashton
Associate Professor Health Economics, School of Population Health, The University of Auckland, Auckland, NZ

Luc Boileau, MD, MSC, FRCPC
President and Chief Executive Officer, Agence de la santé et des services sociaux de la Montérégie, Montréal, QC

Philip Davies
Government Social Research Unit, London, UK

Michael Decter
Founding and Former Chair, Health Council of Canada, Toronto, ON

Robert G. Evans
Professor, Department of Economics, University of British Columbia, Member, Centre for Health Services and Policy Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC

Kenneth Fyke
Victoria, BC

Stefan GreĂź
Department of Health Sciences, University of Applied Sciences, Fulda, Germany

Chris Ham
Professor of Health Policy and Management, Health Services Management Centre, The University of Birmingham,, Birmingham, UK

Paul Lamarche
Professor, Departments of Health Administration & Social and Preventive Medicine, Director, GRIS, Faculté de médecine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC

David Levine
Président directeur général, Agence de développement de réseaux locaux de services de santé et de services sociaux de Montréal-Centre, Montréal, QC

Chris Lovelace
Senior Manager, World Bank, Kyrgyz Republic Country Office, Central Asia Human Development, Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic

Theodore R. Marmor
Professor of Public Policy and Management, Professor of Political Science, Yale School of Management, New Haven, CT

Vicente OrtĂşn
Economics and Business Department and Research Center on Health and Economics (CRES), Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona, Spain

Robin Osborn
Vice President and Director, International Program in Health Policy and Practice, Commonwealth Fund, New York, NY

Dorothy Pringle
Professor Emeritus and Dean Emeritus, Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON

Marc Renaud
Lisbon, Portugal (on sabbatical)

Jean Rochon
Expert associé, Systèmes de soins et services, Institut national de santé publique du Québec, Sainte-Foy, QC

Noralou P. Roos
Manitoba Centre for Health Policy, Professor, Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB

Richard Saltman
Professor of Health Policy and Management, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA

Hon. Hugh D. Segal, CM
Senator, Kingston-Frontenac-Leeds, Ottawa, ON

Alan Wolfson
South Africa

Longwoods Publishing Corporation

Founding Editor-in-Chief

Peggy Leatt, BScN, MSHA, PhD
Professor and Chair Emeritus, Department of Health Policy and Management, Gillings School of Global Public Health,  University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC

Founding Publisher and Chairman (Retired)

W. Anton Hart

Publisher & CEO

Matthew Hart

Publisher & COO

Rebecca Hart

Editorial Director

Dianne Foster-Kent

Associate Publisher, Careers & Web

Susan Hale

Associate Publisher, Customer Service & Administration

Barbara Marshall


Benedict Harris


Eric Hart

Production Manager

Susmita Dey


Healthcare Policy/Politiques de Santé is indexed in the following: Pubmed/Medline, CINAHL CSA (Cambridge, Ulrich’s, Embase, IndexCopernicus, Scopus, ProQuest, Ebsco Discovery Service, is archived in PubMed Central and is a partner of  HINARI

Healthcare Policy/Politiques de Santé is published four times per year by Longwoods™ Publishing Corp., 260 Adelaide St. East, No. 8, Toronto, ON M5A 1N1, Canada. Manuscripts are reviewed by the editors and a panel of peers appointed by the editors. Information contained in this publication has been compiled from sources believed to be reliable. While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy and completeness, these are not guaranteed. The views and opinions expressed are those of the individual contributors and do not necessarily represent an official opinion of Healthcare Policy or Longwoods™ Publishing Corporation. Readers are urged to consult their professional advisers prior to acting on the basis of material in this journal.

No liability for this journal’s content shall be incurred by Longwoods™ Publishing Corporation, the editors, the editorial advisory board or any contributors.

Longwoods offers article and issue reprint/e-print services. Reprints can be ordered in lots of 100 or more. If you are interested in purchasing hard copy reprints of any back issue or specific article please contact permissions@longwoods.com for a quote.

eISSN No. 1715-6580

ISSN No. 1715-6572