Longwoods Publishing Corporation

Co Editors-in-Chief

Anne Wojtak, DrPH
Lead, East Toronto Health Partners, Adjunct Faculty, Institute for Health Policy, Measurement and Evaluation University of Toronto, Toronto, ON

Neil Stuart, PhD
Adjunct Professor, Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON

Founding Editor-in-Chief

Peggy Leatt, BScN, MSHA, PhD
Professor and Chair Emeritus, Department of Health Policy and Management, Gillings School of Global Public Health,  University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC

Review Editors

(as of February 2021)

Steve Atkinson
Manager, Analytics and Special Projects, Canadian Institute for Health Information, Victoria, BC

Louise Biggar
BScN Student, Lawrence S. Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, Toronto ON

Shirley Bryant
Decision Support Consultant, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON

Rob Crawford
Director, Strategy and Analytics, North York General, Toronto, ON

Wynne de Jong
Senior Director Student Health Services, Upper Canada College Toronto, ON

Michael Heenan
Assistant Deputy Minister, Hospitals and Capital, Ontario Ministry of Health, Division,Toronto, ON

Yasir Khalid
Patient Safety, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON

Annette V. Marcuzzi
Consultant, Think Health AM Consulting

Daniel Mastine
Policy Analyst, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON

Saul Melamed
Manager, Client Affairs, Ontario, Canadian Institute for Health Information, Toronto, ON

Swapnil Rege
Chief Operating Officer, Peel Senior Link, Mississauga, ON

Justin Saindon
Director, Digital Transformation, Niagara Health, St. Catharines, ON

Anisa Shivji
Strategic Policy Advisor, Ontario College of Pharmacists, Toronto, ON

Cedomir (Chad) Tosevski
Planner, Scarborough Health Network, Scarborough, ON

Rahim Valani
Associate Professor of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON

Virginia Waring
Project Manager, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON

Editorial Advisory Board

Charlyn Black
Professor, School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC

Elizabeth M. Davis
Sisters of Mercy of Newfoundland and Labrador, St. John’s, NL

Jeff Edelson
Vice President, Clinical at BioMotiv, AEQuanimitas Consulting LLC, Greater Philadelphia Area, PA

Hy Eliasoph
Health Innovations Group,Toronto, ON

Theodore Freedman
Toronto, ON

Chris Helyar
Toronto, ON

Joseph Mapa
CEO, Sinai Health Foundation, Toronto, ON

Terrance Montague
Principal, CareNet Health, Management Consultants, Edmonton, AB

Linda Moxey
Toronto, ON

James Saunders
J.L. Saunders and Associates Inc., Calgary, AB

Donald P. Schurman
Senior Associate, KPMG, Edmonton, AB

Ken Tremblay
Peterborough, ON

Peter A. Weil
Principal, Your Customer’s Voice, Chicago, IL

Mark Walton
Vice President, Strategy, Partnerships and Performance, Halton Healthcare, Oakville, ON

Editorial Director

Dianne Foster-Kent

Contributing Writer

Sine MacKinnon


KnowledgeWorks Global Ltd.


Holly Dickinson


Longwoods™ Publishing Corporate Advisory Board

G. Ross Baker, PhD
Professor, Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON

Adalsteinn Brown
Dean of the Dalla Lana School of Public Health, Toronto, ON

Michael Guerriere
President and CEO, Extendicare Inc., Toronto, ON

Steven Lewis
President, Access Consulting Ltd., Saskatoon (temporarily in Melbourne, Australia); Adjunct Professor of Health Policy, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC

Lynn Nagle, PhD
Assistant Professor, Lawrence Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON

Judith Shamian
President, International Council of Nurses, Geneva, CH

Jennifer Zelmer, BSc, MA, PhD
President & CEO, Canadian Foundation for Healthcare Improvement, Ottawa, ON

Publisher & CEO

Matthew Hart
E-mail: mhart@longwoods.com

Publisher & COO

Rebecca Hart
E-mail: rhart@longwoods.com

Editorial Director

Dianne Foster-Kent
E-mail: dkent@longwoods.com

Associate Publisher, Careers & Web

Susan Hale
E-mail: shale@longwoods.com

Associate Publisher, Customer Service & Administration

Barbara Marshall
E-mail: bmarshall@longwoods.com


Benedict Harris
E-mail: bharris@longwoods.com


Eric Hart

Production Manager

Susmita Dey
E-mail: sdey@longwoods.com


Healthcare Quarterly is indexed in the following: Pubmed/Medline, CINAHL, CSA (Cambridge), Ulrich’s, IndexCopernicus, Scopus, ProQuest, Ebsco Discovery Service and is a partner of HINARI.

Healthcare Quarterly is published four times per year by Longwoods™ Publishing Corp., 260 Adelaide St. East, No. 8, Toronto, ON M5A 1N1, Canada. Information contained in this publication has been compiled from sources believed to be reliable. While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy and completeness, these are not guaranteed. The views and opinions expressed are those of the individual contributors and do not necessarily represent an official opinion of Healthcare Quarterly or Longwoods™ Publishing Corporation. Readers are urged to consult their professional advisers prior to acting on the basis of material in this journal.

No liability for this journal’s content shall be incurred by Longwoods™ Publishing Corporation, the editors, the editorial advisory board or any contributors.

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ISSN No. 1710-2774

eISSN No. 1929-6347