Longwoods Publishing Corporation 


Lynn M. Nagle, PhD, RN, FAAN
Director, Digital Health and Virtual Learning, Faculty of Nursing, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB
Adjunct Professor, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON
Adjunct Professor, Western University, London, ON

Barb Mildon, RN, PhD
Chief Executive Officer, Kawartha Lakes' Community Care Health & Care Network, Lindsay, ON

Editor, Practice

Mary J. McAllister, RN, PhD
Associate Chief, Nursing Practice, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON

Editor, Research

Carol A. Wong, RN, MScN, PhD
Assistant Professor, School of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences,The University of Western Ontario, London, ON

Book Editor

Gail J. Donner, RN, PhD
Partner, donnerwheeler, Professor Emeritus, Lawrence S. Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON

Editor Emeritus

Dorothy Pringle, OC, RN, PhD, FCAHS
Professor Emeritus & Dean Emeritus, Lawrence S. Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, Executive Lead, Health Outcomes for Better Information & Care Ontario Ministry of Health & LTC

Editorial Advisory Committee

Sue VanDeVelde-Coke, RN, MBA, PhD
President & CEO, Kerry’s Place Autism Services, Aurora, ON

Alexandra Harris, RN, BNSc, MN/MHSc, PhD, CHE
Professional Practice Consultant, Trillium Health Partners, Mississauga, ON

Alison Kitson, BSc(Hons), DPhil, RN, FRCN, FAAN
Head, School of Nursing, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia

Kirsten Krull, RN, BAAN, MHSc, CHE
Vice President, Quality and Performance & Chief Nursing Executive, Hamilton Health Sciences, , Hamilton, ON

Barb Mildon, RN, PhD
Chief Executive Officer, Kawartha Lakes' Community Care Health & Care Network, Lindsay, ON

Joy Peacock, BSN, MSc, RN
Chief Executive Officer, College and Association of Registered Nurses of Alberta, Edmonton, AB

Sheri Lynn Price, RN, PhD
Assistant Professor, School of Nursing, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS

Nancy Purdy, RN, PhD
Associate Professor, Associate Director Collaborative Degree Program, Daphne Cockwell School of Nursing, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON

Mary-Anne Robinson, RN, BN, MSA
Edmonton, AB

Walter Sermeus, RN, PhD
Professor in Healthcare Management, Program Director Master in Healthcare Management & Nursing Science Centre for Health Services & Nursing Research
KU Leuven Institute for Healthcare Policy (Leuvens Instituut voor GezondheidszorgBeleid LIGB)
Leuven, Belgium

Lynn Stevenson, RN, PhD, FCCHL, ICD-D
Associate Deputy Minister, Health Services, Victoria, BC

Publisher & CEO

Matthew Hart
E-mail: mhart@longwoods.com

Publisher & COO

Rebecca Hart
E-mail: rhart@longwoods.com

Founding Publisher and Chairman (Retired)

Anton Hart 

Editorial Director

Dianne Foster-Kent
E-mail: dkent@longwoods.com

Associate Publisher, Careers & Web

Susan Hale
E-mail: shale@longwoods.com

Associate Publisher, Customer Service & Administration

Barbara Marshall
E-mail: bmarshall@longwoods.com

Design and Production

Benedict Harris


Eric Hart


The Canadian Journal of Nursing Leadership is indexed in the following: Pubmed/Medline, CINAHL, Nursing Citation Index, Nursing Abstracts, CSA (Cambridge), Ulrich’s, IndexCopernicus, Scopus, ProQuest, Ebsco Discovery Service  and is a partner of HINARI.

Canadian Journal of Nursing Leadership is published four times per year. The journal is refereed and published primarily for nurse administrators, managers and educators. Information contained in this publication has been compiled from sources believed to be reliable. While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy and completeness, these are not guaranteed. The views and opinions expressed are those of the individual contributors and do not necessarily represent an official opinion of Canadian Journal of Nursing Leadership or Longwoods™ Publishing Corporation. Readers are urged to consult their professional advisers prior to acting on the basis of material in this journal.

No liability for this journal’s content shall be incurred by Longwoods™ Publishing Corporation, the editors, the editorial advisory committee or any contributors.

Longwoods offers article and issue reprint/e-print services. Reprints can be ordered in lots of 100 or more. If you are interested in purchasing hard copy reprints of any back issue or specific article please contact permissions@longwoods.com for a quote.

ISSN No. 1910-622X

eISSN No. 1929-6355