Longwoods Publishing Corporation


Audrey Laporte
Professor and Director, Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON

Arjumand Siddiqi
Professor and Division Head, Epidemiology, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON

Editorial Advisory Board

Founding Editor-in-Chief: Peggy Leatt, BScN, MSHA, PhD
Professor and Chair Emeritus, Department of Health Policy and Management, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC

Owen B. Adams
Director of Research, Policy and Planning, Canadian Medical Association

Dr. Arif Bhimji
Magna Health, Aurora, Ontario

Adalsteinn D. Brown
Dean for the Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario

Dr. Gordon D. Brown
Professor and Director, University of Missouri–Columbia, Department of Health Management & Informatics

Mr. Tom Closson
Toronto, Ontario

Mr. William Carter
Borden Ladner Gervais, Toronto, Ontario

Mr. Michael Decter
Toronto, Ontario

Dr. Jeff Edelson
Vice President, Clinical at BioMotiv, AEQuanimitas Consulting LLC, Greater Philadelphia Area, PA

Dr. Bruce J. Fried
Associate Professor and Director, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina

Mr. Peter Goodhand
Markham, Ontario

Dr. Toby Gordon
Associate Professor and Director, The Johns Hopkins University, Department of Health Policy and Management, Baltimore, Maryland and Vice-President Planning & Marketing, Johns Hopkins Medicine

Dr. Carol Herbert
Professor Emeritus, UWO Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, London, Ontario

Dr. Alan Hudson
Toronto, Ontario

Mr. Ron Kaczorowski
President & Managing Director, Prism Alliance Group (IBO), Toronto, Ontario

Mr. John King
Healthcare Advisor, Toronto, Ontario

Dr. Sandra Leggat
School of Public Health, LaTrobe University, Bundoora, Victoria, Australia

Mr. Steven Lewis
President, Access Consulting Ltd., Saskatoon (temporarily in Melbourne, Australia); Adjunct Professor of Health Policy, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC

Mr. Jonathan Lomas
Founding Executive Director, Canadian Health Services Research Foundation, Ottawa, Ontario

Dr. Noni MacDonald
Dalhousie Medical School, Halifax, Nova Scotia

Mr. Bruce S. MacLellan
President, Environics Communications Inc., Toronto and New York

Mr. Joseph Mapa
President, Mount Sinai Hospital Foundation, Toronto, Ontario

Dr. Michael McGuigan
Medical Director, Long Island Regional Poison Control Center, New York

Dr. Robert McMurtry
Professor of Surgery, University of Western Ontario and Orthopedic Consultant, St. Joseph’s Health Care, London, Ontario

Dr. Eric Meslin
Director, Indiana University Center for Bioethics, Indianapolis, Indiana

Dr. Terrence J. Montague
Edmonton, Alberta

Mr. Torbjörn Pelow
Health Administrator & Consultant, Gothenburg, Sweden

Dr. Bernardo Ramirez
Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC

Dr. Janet Thompson Reagan
Professor and Director, Health Administration Programs, California State University, Northridge, California

Dr. Anne E. Rogers
Professor of the Sociology of Health Care, National Primary Care Research and Development Centre, University of Manchester, England

Dr. Judith Shamian
Past President, International Council of Nurses, Geneva, CH

Ms. Tina Smith
Program Director, University of Toronto, Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, Toronto, Ontario

Dr. Willem Wassenaar
President, Wellesley Therapeutics, Toronto, Ontario

Dr. Ruth Wilson
Professor, Department of Family Medicine, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario

Dr. Howard S. Zuckerman
Professor Emeritus, Center for Health Management Research, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington


Audrey Laporte and Arjumand Siddiqi

Editorial Director

Dianne Foster-Kent


KnowledgeWorks Global Ltd.


Holly Dickinson

Founding Publisher and Chairman (Retired)

Anton Hart

Publisher & CEO

Matthew Hart

Publisher & COO

Rebecca Hart

Associate Publisher, Careers & Web

Susan Hale

Associate Publisher, Customer Service & Administration

Barbara Marshall


Benedict Harris


Eric Hart

Production Manager

Susmita Dey


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ISSN No. 1488-917X

eISSN No. 1929-6339