Longwoods Publishing Corporation 

Peggy Leatt, BScN, MSHA, PhD
Founding Editor-in-Chief, Professor and Chair Emeritus, Department of Health Policy and Management, Gillings School of Global Public Health,  University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC

Editor-in-Chief

Prof. Adalsteinn Brown
Director, Institute of Health Policy, Management & Evaluation and Chair, Public Health Policy, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON

Editorial Advisory Board

Owen B. Adams,
Assistant Secretary General of Research, Policy and Planning, Canadian Medical Association

Dr. Arif Bhimji,
Medical Director, Magna Health, Aurora, ON

Dr. Gordon D. Brown, 
Professor and Director, University of Missouri–Columbia, Department of Health Management & Informatics

Mr. Tom Closson,
Toronto, Ontario

Mr. William Carter,
Borden Ladner Gervais, Toronto, Ontario

Mr. Michael Decter,
Toronto, Ontario

Dr. Jeff Edelson,
Chief Medical Officer, and Executive Vice President of Research and Development, Ikano Therapeutics, Principal, Aequanimitas Consulting, Berwyn, PA

Dr. Bruce J. Fried,
Associate Professor and Director, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina

Mr. Peter Goodhand,
Markham, Ontario

Dr. Toby Gordon,
Associate Professor and Director, The Johns Hopkins University, Department of Health Policy and Management, Baltimore, Maryland and Vice-President Planning & Marketing, Johns Hopkins Medicine

Dr. Carol Herbert,
Professor Emeritus, UWO Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, London, Ontario

Dr. Alan Hudson,
Toronto, Ontario

Mr. Ron Kaczorowski,
Chairman, Kensington Health Centre Board of Directors, Toronto, Ontario

Mr. John King,
Executive Vice-President, Hospital Services, St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario

Dr. Peggy Leatt, BScN, MSHA, PhD
Founding Editor-in-Chief, Professor and Chair Emeritus, Department of Health Policy and Management, Gillings School of Global Public Health,  University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC

Dr. Sandra Leggat,
School of Public Health, LaTrobe University, Bundoora, Victoria, Australia

Mr. Steven Lewis,
President, Access Consulting Ltd., Saskatoon; Adjunct Professor of Health Policy, University of Calgary and Simon Fraser University

Mr. Jonathan Lomas,
Founding Executive Director, Canadian Health Services Research Foundation, Ottawa, Ontario

Dr. Noni MacDonald,
Dalhousie Medical School, Halifax, Nova Scotia

Mr. Bruce S. MacLellan,
President, Environics Communications Inc., Toronto and New York

Mr. Joseph Mapa,
President and CEO, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario

Dr. Robert McMurtry, 
Professor of Surgery, University of Western Ontario and Orthopedic Consultant, St. Joseph’s Health Care, London, Ontario

Dr. Eric Meslin,
Director, Indiana University Center for Bioethics, Indianapolis, Indiana

Dr. Terrence J. Montague, 
Principal, CareNet Health, Management Consultants, Edmonton, AB

Mr. Torbjörn Pelow,
Health Administrator & Consultant, Gothenburg, Sweden

Dr. Bernardo Ramirez,
Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC

Dr. Janet Thompson Reagan,
Professor and Director, Health Administration Programs, California State University, Northridge, California

Dr. Judith Shamian, 
President, International Council of Nurses, Geneva, Switzerland

Ms. Tina Smith,
Program Director, University of Toronto, Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, Toronto, Ontario

Dr. Willem Wassenaar,
President, Wellesley Therapeutics, Toronto, Ontario

Dr. Ruth Wilson,
Professor, Department of Family Medicine, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario

Dr. Howard S. Zuckerman,
Professor Emeritus, Center for Health Management Research, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 

Editorial Director

Dianne Foster-Kent

Publisher

W. Anton Hart

Associate Publisher

Rebecca Hart

Associate Publisher/Administration

Barbara Marshall

Associate Publisher

Susan Hale

Associate Publisher

Matthew Hart

Design and Production

Antony Bickenson

Illustrator

Eric Hart

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HealthcarePapers is published four times per year by Longwoods™ Publishing Corp., 260 Adelaide St. East, No. 8, Toronto, ON M5A 1N1, Canada. The views and opinions expressed are those of the individual contributors and do not necessarily represent an official opinion of HealthcarePapers or Longwoods™ Publishing Corp. Readers are urged to consult their professional advisers prior to acting on the basis of material in this journal.

No liability for this journal’s content shall be incurred by Longwoods™ Publishing Corporation, the editors, the editorial advisory board or any contributors.

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ISSN No. 1488-917X

eISSN No. 1929-6339