Practice facilitation has proven to be effective in improving the quality of primary care. A practice facilitator is a health professional, usually external to the practice, who regularly visits the practice to provide support in change management that targets improvements in the delivery of care. Our environmental scan shows that several initiatives across Canada utilize practice facilitation as a quality improvement method; however, many are conducted in isolation as there is a lack of coordinated effort, knowledge translation and dissemination in this field across the country. We recommend that investments be made in capacity building, knowledge exchange and facilitator training, and that partnership building be considered a priority in this field.
In Canada today, the prevalence of chronic diseases is rising, resulting in increased healthcare costs together with higher rates of disability and death (Health Council of Canada 2007; WHO 2005). Primary care practices are well positioned to address these needs, improving health outcomes and reducing healthcare costs (CIHI 2009; Greene et al. 2001; OMHLTC 2007). The challenge to improving primary care often lies in the inability of practices to implement adaptive changes that can enhance their ability to deliver evidence-based guidelines and best practices (Cabana et al. 1999; Grimshaw et al. 2005; Hulscher et al. 1997; McKenna et al. 2004; Stange 1996). Often-cited barriers include lack of time, resources, tools and incentives to make these necessary changes (Epping-Jordan et al. 2004; Hensrud 2000; Majumdar et al. 2004; Tremblay et al. 2004). The support of an individual with expertise in change management, such as a practice facilitator, has been shown to help practices make and maintain the required practice changes (Baskerville et al. 2012 ; Nagykaldi et al. 2005).
The purpose of this paper is to provide a general background on practice facilitation, describe current practice facilitation programs and studies in Canada, identify the gaps in research and implementation, and suggest future directions to address these gaps. By raising awareness of current initiatives and knowledge gaps, we aim to inform and increase dialogue between policy makers and program implementers from across Canada in order to enhance national coordination and to guide future initiatives to support the effective implementation of this approach across the country.
In its most general sense, practice facilitation in healthcare is a quality improvement (QI) process that involves bringing an individual with expertise in change management and a solid understanding of healthcare (commonly nursing) into a practice to assist the group in adapting their clinical practices to optimize patient care delivery through increased adherence to evidence-based guidelines (Knox et al. 2011). A recent meta-analysis of 23 studies involving 1,398 primary care practices found that primary care physicians are nearly three times as likely to implement evidence-based guidelines into care when supported by a practice facilitator (Baskerville et al. 2012).
Practice facilitators (also known as outreach facilitators, practice enhancement assistants and practice coaches) engage and build a partnership with providers over time. They work with practices to identify areas for improvement (often through audit and feedback), set goals for care improvement, provide tools and approaches to reach these goals and follow up regularly with the practices to support change. The approach is grounded in key elements of the Chronic Care Model such as adopting evidence-based care, implementing planned care and recall, using a team approach, and supporting patient self-management and integration with the community (ICIC n.d.).
Unlike a knowledge broker, whose role is to communicate research findings to end users, practice facilitators actively work with providers over time to help them change their clinical practices by adopting evidence-based approaches more readily and effectively. The focus is on re-organization of the practice for sustained delivery of high-quality care rather than increasing specific content knowledge.
The origins of the practice facilitation model can be traced back to the Oxford Prevention of Heart Attack and Stroke project in England (1982–1984). Practice facilitators were described by Fullard and colleagues (1984) and Cook (1994) as healthcare professionals who could help assess current processes and plan implementation measures to enhance prevention strategies and be cross-pollinators of ideas and resource providers. The literature suggests that a practice facilitator can help build relationships within the practice and between the practice and health networks, who can share resources (Nagykaldi et al. 2005; Thomson et al. 2000).
Since that time, the practice facilitation concept has been implemented across the globe in countries such as Australia, the Netherlands, the United States and the United Kingdom. In Canada, the first community-based primary care facilitation study was conducted in 1997 in Ontario. The performance of practices randomly allocated to the practice facilitation arm gained substantial improvements (12% absolute increase over an 18-month period) in the delivery of preventive services (i.e., blood glucose monitoring, smoking cessation counselling, hypertension management and more). This effect was estimated to translate into a net long-term savings to the healthcare system at a rate of return of 40% after one year of intervention (Hogg et al. 2005; Lemelin et al. 2001).
In contrast to other QI approaches in primary care such as didactic education, passive dissemination strategies, and audit and feedback, which have shown little or no effect (<5% improvement), multifaceted approaches such as practice facilitation have been shown to be more effective in improving uptake of preventive care guidelines (>10%) and thus hold promise for the implementation of chronic disease prevention and management.
Three facilitation research studies are ongoing in Canada. The BETTER project (Building on Existing Tools to Improve Chronic Disease Prevention in Family Practice) targets primary care practices in Toronto and Edmonton with the aim of improving prevention and screening for cancer and other chronic diseases, such as diabetes and heart disease. The newly initiated TRANSIT project in Quebec has engaged nine primary care practices and aims to improve cardiovascular disease prevention and management. Finally, the Improved Delivery of Cardiovascular Care (IDOCC) program in Ontario also aims to improve the quality of care delivered to patients with or at high risk of developing cardiovascular disease through practice facilitation. The project was initiated in 2008 and involves 83 practices (Liddy et al. 2011). The facilitation strategies used in the projects commonly involves performing a chart audit and feedback to provide a perspective on current practices and processes, assisting with goal setting and achieving consensus on strategies for reaching the goals. Tools used include Plan, Do, Study, Act (PDSA) cycles, process mapping (ImpactBC 2012; IHI 2012) and project evaluation plans, and these are tailored to the requirements of the practice.
The Need for Knowledge Exchange
Despite the increasing adoption of practice facilitation in Canada, there has been little knowledge exchange – defined as collaborative problem solving between researchers and decision-makers through linkage and exchange, resulting in mutual learning – within this approach until recently. In January 2011, we conducted a two-day workshop, "The Art and Science of Outreach Facilitation," in Ottawa, Ontario. This event provided a forum for various stakeholders from across Canada and the United States, including researchers interested in the approach and primary care providers considering implementing such an approach in their practice, to share knowledge on the efficacy and implementation strategies of practice facilitation. Our panel of facilitation experts shared their expertise in this QI intervention and conducted interactive training sessions. We offered concepts and training strategies for practice facilitation, concepts for change management and practical methods to engage primary care practices in QI initiatives.
Primary Care Quality Improvement Programs in Canada
We have since continued to build the network of facilitation users, and have compiled an inventory of practice facilitation programs across Canada to assist with knowledge dissemination (see Figure 1 and Table 1). Through Internet searches and telephone interviews as well as informal discussions with experts in the field, we have established that several provinces are already engaged in QI initiatives founded on facilitation, some of which rely on a facilitator internal to the practice. It is not clear whether the competing obligations and interests that might be placed on internal facilitators affects their work.
|TABLE 1. List of facilitation projects across Canada|
|Impact BC www.impactbc.ca||Practice Redesign, Registry & Recall, Patient Self-Management||Provides coaching and support to practices, health authorities and communities for QI initiatives using Model for Improvement (Langley et al. 2009)|
|BETTER project (Edmonton) (in conjunction with Toronto)||Chronic Disease Prevention & Screening||Patient level – lifestyle modification, screening for CVD, DM and cancer
Practice level – improve screening and prevention measures, evaluation component
|Alberta AIM www.albertaaim.ca||Practice Redesign||Improving access, efficiency and clinical care through use of collaboratives
Developing facilitator training
|Chinook Primary Care Network www.chinookprimarycarenetwork.ab.ca||Practice Redesign, Chronic Disease Management, Prevention||Improving access, efficiency and use of EMRs, chronic disease management|
|Towards Optimized Practice (TOP) www.topalbertadoctors.org||Practice Redesign, Clinical Practice Guidelines, Model for Improvement (Langley et al. 2009)||Assistance available for physicians and teams to improve office systems and patient care|
|Health Quality Council www.hqc.sk.ca||Chronic Disease Management (Diabetes, CAD), COPD, Depression||Provides support and tools to practices to improve care in QI initiatives, using collaboratives|
|Clinical Practice Redesign (Saskatchewan Surgical Initiative)||Practice Redesign||Improve communication, access and efficiencies in/between primary and specialty care|
|Pursuing Excellence MPAN (Manitoba Patient Access Network) www.gov.mb.ca/health/mpan/index.html||Facilitator Capacity, Practice Redesign, Improved Patient Experience||Developing facilitator training in LEAN, SIX SIGMA, Advanced Access, Releasing Time to Care methods to build capacity to work with practices (DeMone 2011)|
BETTER Project (Toronto)
|Chronic Disease Prevention & Screening||Patient level – lifestyle modification, screening for CVD, DM and cancer
Practice level – improve screening and prevention measures, evaluation component
|Improved Delivery of Cardiovascular Care (IDOCC) www.idocc.ca (Champlain LHIN)||Cardiovascular Disease Screening & Management, Practice Redesign||Provides support and tools to increase uptake of guidelines in managing CVD Assessing sustainability of intervention|
|Ottawa Model for Smoking Cessation (Champlain LHIN) www.ottawamodel.ca/en_primarycare.php||Smoking Cessation||Provide support and tools to family health teams and large community practices to make systematic changes in approach to smoking cessation|
|Diabetes Regional Coordinating Centre (Champlain LHIN) firstname.lastname@example.org||Diabetes Care, Practice Redesign||Coordinates and leverages existing care Provides support and tools in practice redesign|
|Quality Improvement and Innovation Partnership (QIIP) https://pefht.ca/site/index.php?option=com_ content&task=view&id=140&Itemid=167 Special%20Projects||Chronic Disease & Cancer Management, Practice Redesign||Through collaboratives, assists practice in QI redesign, access, efficiencies|
|Hamilton Family Health Team (150 primary care providers over 80 sites) www.hamiltonfht.ca||All Areas of Care, Practice Redesign||Provides support and tools in assisting practices to improve care, especially in access, chronic disease management|
|Cancer Care Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care www.cancercare.on.ca||Practice Redesign, Improved Patient Experience, Knowledge Transfer||Agency working with providers and organizations to improve care and evaluate progress, services|
|Etude TRANSIT – Laval email@example.com||Establish Priorities in CVD, Develop Facilitation Capacity||Provide support and tools to providers to improve care, interprofessional collaboration, patient self-management|
|Projet Cible-Qualité Part of réseau Qualaxia network www.qualaxia.org||Increase Knowledge Transfer of Best Practices in Mental Health||Uses external and internal facilitators to promote knowledge transfer, organizational change|
|Building a Better Tomorrow Initiative Ministry of Health NB www.gnb.ca/0053/phc/better_ tomorrow-e.asp#top||Training Program & Resources for Change Management in Professional Development for Primary Care Providers||Support collaborative approach in primary care quality improvement using training programs and manual Guiding Facilitation in a Canadian Context (Dept. Health & Community Services NL 2006)|
|Building a Better Tomorrow Initiative Quality Diabetes Collaborative Capital District Health Authority www.cdha.nshealth.ca||Facilitation Capacity Development, Diabetes||Facilitator skills training program
Provides support to set QI goals, establish diabetes registry, measure processes and outcomes
|None known at this time|
|Newfoundland & Labrador|
|None known at this time|
|None known at this time|
|None known at this time|
- British Columbia uses a general strategy to target primary healthcare with practice facilitation (ImpactBC 2012); online resources and tools are available for those practices wanting to participate.
- Alberta has a large provincial partnership of organizations (Alberta AIM: Access Improvement Measures) and brings together groups of practices (collaboratives) to redesign practice systems and manage chronic diseases better within primary care. The lead AIM facilitator is developing an orientation, training and resources package for facilitators to ensure a consistent standard of skills among their facilitators and to increase capacity. Towards Optimized Practice (TOP) offers assistance to physicians and teams to support practice redesign to increase the uptake of evidence-based care. For example, the Health Screen in ACT1ON project, initiated by TOP, provided over 500 physicians with a prevention/screening checklist tool that resulted in a 14% improvement over 10 evidence-based manoeuvres. A separate program in southern Alberta, in the Chinook Primary Care Network, uses internal facilitators as part of its ongoing quality improvement efforts to increase efficiencies, access and chronic disease management. Through its work with 25 clinics, the Chinook PCN has demonstrated significant improvements in reducing access delays and process indicators such as cancer screening, immunizations and blood sugar screening.
- Saskatchewan's Health Quality Council has several facilitation-based initiatives underway to redesign practice systems that address issues of access, efficiencies, communication between primary and specialty care and disease management.
- Through the programs Pursuing Excellence and Manitoba Patient Access Network (MPAN), Manitoba is expanding facilitator capacity at all levels of healthcare and, by means of targeted funding, is increasing patients' access, identifying and reducing inefficiencies, and improving patients' overall healthcare experience.
- Multiple jurisdictions are using external facilitators within collaboratives as a way to disseminate QI methods to many providers simultaneously. In Ontario, Health Quality Ontario is offering QI opportunities to practices across Ontario to enhance access, practice efficiency and chronic disease management. HQO uses facilitators to assist with audit and feedback, goal setting and reaching consensus on how to achieve goals. As well, there are recent programs within Ontario that use external facilitators to address issues of practice redesign and improving access for specific targeted areas, such as smoking cessation and diabetes management.
- Quebec has research and implementation projects to identify priorities of care and increase knowledge transfer in primary and mental healthcare using facilitation.
- The Maritime provinces also have facilitation programs in place. New Brunswick is developing training programs and professional development in QI initiatives, using a collaborative approach and a published manual on facilitation. Nova Scotia has a QI program to increase practice facilitation capacity and improve diabetes management by focusing on several target processes and outcomes.
We have not been able to determine whether there are facilitation programs in the remaining provinces and territories of Canada.
There are multiple facilitation projects across the United States; they are too numerous to list here. Federal agencies such as the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) are helping to create infrastructure to support local programs and in anticipation of a potential national primary care extension program that would make facilitation support available to small and medium practices across the country. In addition, primary care practice-based research networks, state health departments, health insurance plans and others are using facilitation as a quality improvement method within primary care, and to support timely translation of new medical and health service discoveries into the community. In addition, groups such as the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI), Clinical Microsystems and others are investing in facilitator training (Knox 2010).
Research and Implementation Gaps
While there is enough evidence to conclude that practice facilitation, as it is broadly defined, is effective as a QI intervention to improve delivery of care, and although multiple practice facilitation programs have already been implemented across Canada, there remain gaps to address, in terms of both research and implementation.
How a facilitation program is best structured remains uncertain. Studies addressing the optimal intensity and duration of a practice facilitation intervention are not conclusive. Greater intensity has been associated with larger effects (Baskerville et al. 2012); however, longer and more intense interventions are associated with increased costs and are likely to attract fewer participants because they require longer commitments on behalf of the practices. Other important questions that need to be addressed include the extent to which the changes are sustained after the end of facilitation intervention. Many factors (practice-related, disease-related, healthcare-related) can affect the success of the change and its sustainability.
What are the essential qualities of a practice that make it more likely to be successful at implementing change when using facilitation as an intervention? Facilitation is often multi-pronged. What are the components of practice facilitation that are necessary to achieve change? Does tailoring to practice requirements matter? Receiving feedback on the practice performance and setting goals are effective tools in moving a practice towards improved care (Thomson et al. 2000), but are there other elements of facilitation, or aspects of a facilitator, that make this intervention more likely to succeed? Are the elements of practice facilitation documented, and the necessary skills compiled and disseminated, so that there is a consistency in this QI intervention?
Most facilitation programs in Canada have been developed in isolation, and without much consultation from similar programs in neighbouring jurisdictions. While there have been some initial attempts to begin the process of disseminating knowledge and expertise in facilitation, there remain significant gaps in that area.
In Canada, policy documents addressing the role of practice facilitation in primary care are scarce. In 2006, the province of Newfoundland and Labrador published the result of a multi-jurisdictional collaboration to increase awareness of facilitation and how it could be used (Department of Health and Community Services 2006). Within our IDOCC project, we built on this original work and developed our own training manual adapted to the needs of our project. Further to this project-specific manual, we have applied for funding to develop and pilot a facilitation training program and general manual that is applicable across facilitation programs, and to offer a learning session to facilitators at the start of their programs. In this way, consistency and capacity can be built into the healthcare system, and facilitation can be used by health authorities when starting their QI initiatives. This approach has been adopted in the United States with a recently released "how-to" guide on developing and running a practice facilitation program that is an integral part of the resources related to primary care renewal based on the Patient Centered Medical Home Model (Knox et al. 2011).
As we discovered through the process of compiling the inventory, there are many variations of facilitation among the provinces, from internal to external facilitator, various QI targets, varying amounts and models of intervention and participation. How should a facilitation effort deal with the flow of interest in practice redesign when a practice has to cope with multiple priorities? Is success more likely if time and incentives are awarded? If so, should a primary care practice receive protected time and incentives to participate in these programs? Should facilitation be time-defined, or should facilitators maintain contact with the practice to support sustainability? Collaboratives have been extensively used in multiple jurisdictions, but do we know if they are the most effective way to introduce change concepts and assist with goal setting and reaching consensus? Or is a one-on-one method more successful?
Recommendations for Future Directions
Looking to the future, we suggest that the following recommendations would help leverage the progress of our current understanding of facilitation interventions. Ongoing partnerships within the different levels of government health agencies and authorities are vital to transfer knowledge among health researchers, providers and policy makers, as well as to ensure that facilitation efforts align with the direction of policy in the jurisdiction. We have begun to develop a network of experts through our workshops, inventory and position paper in an effort to disseminate knowledge of facilitation. Those involved in practice facilitation in different jurisdictions should consider sharing their experiences through publications, presentation, workshops and other means.
A formal network within Canada would be useful, and could be linked with others internationally. A training manual on facilitation is a useful tool when setting up programs; and the creation and piloting of a universally relevant training manual and program within Canada is important. Of late, increased emphasis has been placed on improving care for individual chronic diseases, such as diabetes and cancer. While each disease has a significant impact on health outcomes and the facilitative method is effective in such initiatives, we suggest that the method be applied generally to practice systems as a whole, rather than to a specific disease. If an initiative is disease-specific, there may be a tendency to duplicate efforts and the initiative may not be cost-effective. Perhaps office management and practice delivery design using the Chronic Care Model should be introduced at medical schools to develop a consideration for the elements of excellent care delivery. While a federal and provincial objective may be to involve all primary practices in care improvements, it may prove more feasible to work with smaller groups within regions as practices voluntarily choose to participate. Incentives, training and protected time should be considered to curtail barriers to implementation and enhance practice involvement.
There have been numerous projects of practice facilitation both in Canada and the United States, and many of these have employed rigorous methods to assess the effectiveness of practice facilitation. The synthesis of this work demonstrates that practice facilitation works in translating evidence into practice and improving the quality of primary care. Additional short-term, pilot projects are not required; rather, policy research is needed on ways to scale up practice facilitation to extend its impact and to determine sustained funding and training initiatives for the long-term implementation of practice facilitation in primary care.
Aperçu des programmes de facilitation de la pratique au Canada : panorama actuel et orientations à venir
Il est démontré que la facilitation de la pratique est un moyen efficace d'améliorer la qualité des soins de santé primaires. Le facilitateur de la pratique est un professionnel de la santé, habituellement externe, qui visite régulièrement l'établissement pour apporter un soutien à la gestion de changements visant l'amélioration de la prestation des soins. Notre analyse du contexte montre que plusieurs initiatives au Canada font appel à la facilitation comme méthode d'amélioration de la qualité; cependant, plusieurs de ces initiatives demeurent isolées puisqu'il y a manque d'efforts coordonnés, de diffusion et de transposition des connaissances dans ce domaine au pays. Nous recommandons la mise en place d'investissements pour le renforcement des capacités, pour l'échange de connaissances et pour la formation de facilitateurs; nous recommandons également que l'établissement de partenariats soit considéré comme une priorité dans ce domaine.
About the Author(s)
Clare Liddy, MD, MSc, Assistant Professor, Department of Family Medicine, University of Ottawa, Clinical Investigator, Bruyère Research Institute and C.T. Lamont Primary Health Care Research Centre, Ottawa, ON
Dianne Laferriere, RN, BScN, Outreach Facilitator, Improved Delivery of Cardiovascular Disease through Outreach Facilitation (IDOCC), C.T. Lamont Primary Health Care Research Centre, Bruyère Research Institute, Ottawa, ON
Bruce Baskerville, PhD, Senior Scientist, Propel Centre for Population Health Impact, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON
Simone Dahrouge, PhD, Director, C.T. Lamont Primary Health Care Research Centre, Bruyère Research Institute, Ottawa, ON
Lyndee Knox, PhD, Chief Executive Officer, LA Net Community Health Resource Network, Los Angeles, CA
William Hogg, MSc, MD, Professor, Department of Family Medicine, University of Ottawa, Clinical Scientist & Senior Research Advisor, C.T. Lamont Primary Health Care Research Centre,, Bruyère Research Institute, Ottawa, ON
Correspondence may be directed to: Dr. Clare Liddy, C.T. Lamont Primary Health Care Research Centre, Bruyère Research Institute, 43 Bruyère St., Ottawa, ON K1N 5C8; tel.: 613-562-6262, ext. 1326; fax: 613-562-6099; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
This report is a product of a Canadian Institute of Health Research Meeting, Planning and Dissemination Grant entitled "The Art and Science of Outreach Facilitation: A Knowledge Translation Event" (FRN #228335). The authors wish to thank Ms. Alex Cornett for reviewing and editing the final version of this report and to Dr. Javad Shahidi for his contributions.
Baskerville, N.B., C. Liddy and W. Hogg. 2012 (January/February). "Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Practice Facilitation within Primary Care Settings." Annals of Family Medicine 10: 63–74. doi: 10.1370/afm.1312. Retrieved December 15, 2012. <http://www.annfammed.org/content/10/1/63.full>.
Cabana, M.D., C.S. Rand, N.R. Powe, A.W. Wu, M.H. Wilson, P.C. Abboud et al. 1999. "Why Don't Physicians Follow Clinical Practice Guidelines? A Framework for Improvement." Journal of the American Medical Association 282(15): 1458–65.
Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI). 2009. Experiences with Primary Health Care in Canada. Retrieved December 15, 2012. <https://secure.cihi.ca/estore/productFamily.htm?pf=PFC1332&lang=en&media=0>.
Cook, R. 1994. "Primary Care, Facilitators: Looking Forward." Health Visit 67(12): 434–35.
DeMone, B. 2011. "Pursuing Excellence: A Multi-Pronged Improvement Strategy for Manitoba Health Care." Winnipeg: Government of Manitoba. Retrieved December 15, 2012. <http://www.gov.mb.ca/health/mpan/pdf/demone.pdf>.
Department of Health and Community Services, Province of Newfoundland and Labrador. 2006. Guiding Facilitation in the Canadian Context: Enhancing Primary Care. Retrieved December 15, 2012. <http://www.gnb.ca/0053/phc/pdf/Facilitation%20Guide%20-%20English.pdf>.
Epping-Jordan, J.E., S.D. Pruitt, R. Bengoa and E.H. Wagner. 2004 (August). "Improving the Quality of Health Care for Chronic Conditions." BMJ Quality and Safety in Health Care 13(4): 299–305.
Fullard, E., G. Fowler and M. Gray. 1984 (December 8). "Facilitating Prevention in Primary Care." British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Edition) 289(6458): 1585–87.
Greene, L.A., G.E. Fryer Jr, B.P. Yawn, D. Lanier and S.M. Dovey. 2001 (June 28). "The Ecology of Medical Care Revisited." New England Journal of Medicine 344(26): 2021–25.
Grimshaw, J.M., R.E. Thomas, G. MacLennan, C. Fraser, C.R. Ramsay, L. Vale et al. 2005. "Effectiveness and Efficiency of Guideline Dissemination and Implementation Strategies." International Journal of Technological Assessment in Health Care 21(1): 149.
Health Council of Canada. 2007. Chronic Disease: 2006 Annual Report. Retrieved December 8, 2011.
Hensrud, D.D. 2000 (February). "Clinical Preventive Medicine in Primary Care: Background and Practice: I. Rationale and Current Preventive Practices." Mayo Clinic Proceedings 75(2): 165–72.
Hogg, W., N. Baskerville and J. Lemelin. 2005. "Cost Savings Associated with Improving Appropriate and Reducing Inappropriate Preventive Care: Cost–Consequences Analysis." BMC Health Services Research 5: 20. Retrieved December 15, 2012. <http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6963/5/20>.
Hulscher, M.E.J.L., B.B. VanDrenth, H.G.A. Mokkink, J.C. VanderWouden and R.P.T.M. Grol. 1997. "Barriers to Preventive Care in General Practice: The Role of Organizational and Attitudinal Factors." British Journal of General Practice 47(424): 711–71.
ImpactBC. 2012. Retrieved December 15, 2012. <http://www.impactbc.ca>.
Improving Chronic Illness Care (ICIC). n.d. "The Chronic Care Model." Retrieved December 15, 2012. <http://www.improvingchroniccare.org/index.php?p=The_Chronic_Care_Model&s=2>.
Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI). 2012. Retrieved December 15, 2012. <http://www.ihi.org/Pages/default.aspx>.
Knox, L. 2010. Report on the AHRQ 2010 Consensus Meeting on Practice Facilitation for Primary Care Improvement (Figure 1, p. 11). Retrieved December 15, 2012. <http://www.scribd.com/doc/51932163/Report-on-the-AHRQ-2010-Consensus-Meeting-on-Practice-Facilitation-for-Primary-Care-Improvement>.
Knox, L., E.F. Taylor, K. Geonnotti, R. Machta, J. Kim, J. Nysenbaum et al. 2011. Developing and Running a Primary Care Practice Facilitation Program: A How-To Guide. AHRQ Publication no. 12-0011. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Retrieved December 15, 2012. <http://pcmh.ahrq.gov/portal/server.pt/community/pcmh__home/1483/pcmh_implementing_the_pcmh___practice_facilitation_v2>.
Langley, G., R. Moen, K. Nolan, T. Nolan, C. Norman and L. Provost, eds. 2009. Figure 1: Model for Improvement. In The Improvement Guide (2nd ed., p. 24). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Lemelin, J., W. Hogg and N. Baskerville. 2001. "Evidence to Action: A Tailored Multifaceted Approach to Changing Family Physician Practice Patterns and Improving Preventive Care." Canadian Medical Association Journal 164: 757–63.
Liddy, C., W. Hogg, G. Russell, G. Wells, C.D. Armstrong, A. Akbari et al. 2011. "Improved Delivery of Cardiovascular Care through Outreach Facilitation: Study Protocol and Implementation Details of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial in Primary Care." Implementation Science 6: 110. Retrieved December 15, 2012. <http://www.implementationscience.com/content/pdf/1748-5908-6-110.pdf>.
Majumdar, S.R., F.A. McAlister and C.D. Furberg. 2004 (May 19). "From Knowledge to Practice in Chronic Cardiovascular Disease: A Long and Winding Road." Journal of the American College of Cardiology 43(10): 1738–42.
McKenna, H.P., S. Ashton and S. Keeney. 2004. "Barriers to Evidence-Based Practice in Primary Care." Journal of Advanced Nursing 45(2): 178–89.
Nagykaldi, Z., J.W. Mold and C.B. Aspy. 2005. "Practice Facilitators: A Review of the Literature." Family Medicine 37: 581–88.
Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care (OMHLTC). 2007 (May). "Preventing and Managing Chronic Disease: Ontario's Framework." 2007. Retrieved December 15, 2012. <http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/cdpm/pdf/framework_full.pdf>.
Stange, K. 1996. "Primary Care Research: Barriers and Opportunities." Journal of Family Practice 42: 192.
Tremblay, G.J., D. Drouin, J. Parker, C. Monette, D.F. Cote and R.D. Reid. 2004 (October). "The Canadian Cardiovascular Society and Knowledge Translation: Turning Best Evidence into Best Practice." Canadian Journal of Cardiology 20(12): 1195–98.
Thomson, O., M.A. O'Brien, A.D. Oxman, D.A. Davis, R.B. Haynes, N. Freemantle et al. 2000. "Educational Outreach Visits: Effects on Professional Practice and Health Care Outcomes." Cochrane Database System Review 2: CD000409.
World Health Organization (WHO). 2005. Preventing Chronic Diseases: A Vital Investment. Retrieved December 15, 2012. <http://www.who.int/chp/chronic_disease_report/en>.
Be the first to comment on this!
Personal Subscriber? Sign In
Note: Please enter a display name. Your email address will not be publically displayed