A new dimension has been added to Canadian Medicare – exemption from prosecution for physicians, nurse practitioners and assistants providing medical assistance in dying for competent and informed adult patients with a grievous and irremediable medical condition causing intolerable physical or psychological suffering, irreversible decline in capabilities and reasonably foreseeable natural death. To define stakeholders' perceptions on all contemporary end-of-life care options, we analyzed data from the 2016 Health Care in Canada Survey comprising representative samples of the adult public (n = 1,500), physicians (n = 102), nurses (n = 102), pharmacists (n = 100), administrators (n = 100) and allied health professionals (n = 100). Among the public, enhanced pain management, hospice/palliative care and home/family care were all supported at, or above, the 80th percentile; medically assisted death was supported by 70%. Among all professionals, hospice/palliative care, pain management and home care garnered >90% support; support for medically assisted death ranged from 58% (physicians) to 79% (allied professionals). In terms of priority to implement available options, medically assisted death was rated first by 46% of the public, overall, and by 69% of the sub-group who strongly supported it, followed by enhanced pain management (45%) and home care (42%). Among professionals, top implementation priorities (range: 57–61%) were: enhanced pain management, hospice/palliative care and home care support. Priority for medically assisted death ranged between 25% and 41%, although among professionals who strongly supported it, it was their top priority (52%). When asked to balance patients' right to access assisted death, versus some professionals' reluctance to provide it, 42% of the public and the majority of professionals thought providers should be allowed to opt out if they referred patients to another willing provider. And many professionals perceive some risk of either legal or regulatory reprisal if they assist in patients' deaths. In summary, there is substantial contemporary support for all components of end-of-life care among all stakeholders. However, non-lethal care modalities remain generally preferred, perhaps, at least in part, because medical professionals have a pervasive concern of going in harm's way by participating in assisted death, or by refusing. Things can be better.
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