Healthcare Policy

Healthcare Policy 16(4) May 2021 : 46-69.doi:10.12927/hcpol.2021.26499
Research Paper

Putting the Patient First: A Scoping Review of Patient Desires in Canada

Allie Peckham, James G. Wright, Husayn Marani, Reham Abdelhalim, Dara Laxer, Sara Allin, Nadia Alam and Greg Marchildon


Patient-centred care is a key priority for governments, providers and stakeholders, yet little is known about the care preferences of patient groups. We completed a scoping review that yielded 193 articles for analysis. Five health states were used to account for the diversity of possible preferences based on health needs. Five broad themes were identified and expressed differently across the health states, including personalized care, navigation, choice, holistic care and care continuity. Patients' perspectives must be considered to meet the diverse needs of targeted patient groups, which can inform health system planning, quality improvement initiatives and targeting of investments.


Increasingly, policy makers and health system managers are considering the perspectives and experiences of patients in reforming health systems (1–5). The emphasis on "patient-centred care" places patients (and caregivers) at the forefront of the planning, delivery and evaluation of healthcare services (2, 6, 7). The recently established Ontario Minister's Patient and Family Advisory Council (PFAC) is the first of its kind in Canada and provides a formal mechanism for incorporating patient and family perspectives into decision making and system planning (7, 8). The idea of organizing healthcare around the patient seems, at first, uncomplicated, yet the concept itself is complex, and the application of the concept is multifaceted. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) informs much of the discourse and application on this topic (5). In this context, patient-centred care refers to "providing care that is respectful of, and responsive to, individual patient preferences, needs and values, and ensuring that patient values guide all clinical decisions" (5: p. 3). As described by the IOM, the concept applies not only to care delivery but also to system planning and research (5). It also relates closely to patient experience and engagement (4, 9). Whereas patient engagement aims to solicit patient and family input based on their needs and preferences to co-design solutions (4), patient experience is defined as "how patients perceive and experience their care" (10).

The effective design and delivery of patient-centred care require a comprehensive understanding of the needs, desires and preferences of patients. Although high-performing health systems identify patient-centred care as a critical health system priority, the healthcare system is often criticized because of its tendency to focus on the needs of healthcare providers, who often do not have a comprehensive understanding of patient needs. Alongside policy makers' increasing interest in patient-centred care is a growing body of scholarly research that aims to understand patient experiences with and their perspectives on the health system. Furthermore, when patient needs are explicitly recognized, the system is designed based on generalized assumptions of these needs, as if patients are a homogeneous group, yielding a "one size fits all" approach. Previous research has suggested that patients' needs vary significantly across different patient populations (6–10), but this research has not yet been systematically reviewed.

The purpose of this study was to gain a systematic understanding of the preferences of Canadian patients and, where possible, their caregivers. This information can be used to inform the design and tailored delivery of healthcare services for different patient and caregiver groups.


This scoping review follows the recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines (11), as well as Arksey and O'Malley's stepwise approach to conducting a scoping review (12). 

Search strategy

We used the PICo (population, interest, context) framework for qualitative studies to operationalize the research purpose into searchable keywords (13). Four databases were searched in January 2019 (OVID Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE and PsycInfo). To maximize search results and derive search results that were manageable and focused, we conducted four separate searches within each database involving various combinations of Boolean operators (and/or) for life stage, health stage and population of interest. These searches are listed below:

  • Search 1: Patients OR caregivers OR health stage, AND interest AND context
  • Search 2: Patients OR caregivers OR social status OR health stage, AND interest AND context
  • Search 3: Life stage OR health stage, AND interest AND context
  • Search 4: Life stage OR health stage OR social status, AND interest AND context

Appendix 1 (available online here) presents the application of Search 1 to OVID Medline. Search restrictions were imposed on language (English), setting (Canada, provinces/territories) and date of publication (January 2013 to December 2019). Pulling articles from 2013 onward was a practical and purposeful decision (12) as we wanted to obtain a manageable number of articles that was reflective of current Canadian opinions of the health system, not a historical understanding of how needs have changed. To ensure a valid and reliable search, this search process was guided by a trained medical sciences librarian.

Study selection

Two reviewers performed a title/abstract screening of all articles following the removal of duplicate articles. The same reviewers then both performed the full-text review on all remaining articles. Articles were included if they met inclusion criteria concerning study setting (Canada and/or a Canadian province), study participants (patients of all ages and/or family/friend/caregiver) and study topic (healthcare experiences).

Data extraction and analysis

To account for the diversity of health needs across the Canadian population, we hypothesized five identifiable health states to organize patient groups, described in Table 1. Health states were initially identified within our interdisciplinary team and were adapted based on the presentation of populations within the literature (8–10, 14, 15). Although other health states could have been used for categorization, the five were generally quite effective and appropriate for describing the health needs found in studies. Studies were organized by health state based on the description of the population included in the study. It is possible that some populations may have fallen across multiple health states. In such cases, two reviewers independently allocated articles to the most appropriate health state, and disagreement was reconciled by the principal investigator. Appendix 2 (available online here) provides a tally of how many articles spoke to each health state across a variety of life stages, which include age and other population subgroups (i.e., LGBTQ+ populations).

TABLE 1. Five health state categories and definitions
Health state Definition
Walking well Those who use primary preventive and alternative care to maintain health and well-being
Chronic conditions Those who live with one or more chronic diseases and see more than one provider
Acute life-threatening Those who seek care in emergency departments or have short intervals in hospitals
Mental/cognitive health and addictions Those who seek care for mental health issues and/or addictions in any care setting
Palliative/end-of-life care Those who receive end-of-life support and care in any setting


Two reviewers were responsible for independently extracting data from all articles following a pilot extraction of two articles. The extraction table included details on the study itself (i.e., year, purpose, location, population of interest, methods, key findings, etc.). All key findings were summarized within the extraction table, and representative quotations were pulled from the document. Following completion of the extraction, three researchers systematically reviewed the data, focusing mostly on the summarized key findings, and coded details based on life stage (pediatric, youth and children, young adult, adult and older adult) while colour-coding experiences based on health state, as described above. Following this coding, an inductive thematic analysis was then conducted by three reviewers to summarize findings and themes (16), where the three researchers met to discuss consistent themes across life and health states. As themes and consistent experiences were identified, the researchers looked to identify both the similarities and the differences in desires across health stages.


The PRISMA Flow Diagram (Appendix 3, available online at here) presents the article selection process. A total of 12,341 studies were pulled across all databases searched; 7,763 and 4,127 articles were excluded following deduplication and title/abstract screening, respectively. Full-text screening was then performed on the remaining 451 studies, and 193 were included for analysis (17–208). Appendix 4 (available online at here) presents a summary of all included articles, including author(s), year, location and aim. Recognizing that the populations studied may fall within different health states, we include a matrix tally that illustrates the overlap in health states across the studies included (Appendix 2, available online at here). Additionally, where data were available, the results highlight the perspectives of patients and caregivers. The majority of papers spoke to patient perspectives only, and in those instances we discuss the results and refer only to patients. If caregivers' perspectives were reported in the literature, we reference patients and caregivers together.

Among many possible areas on which to focus health system improvement, there were common preferences expressed across health states (summarized in Table 2) within the included articles. Table 2 demonstrates these reported preferences; if a preference was identified in the literature and associated with a particular health state, there is a check mark. These preferences were generally described to be of equal importance: 1) personalized care; 2) information on resources available and how to navigate the system; 3) choice in treatment, care setting and/or care provider; 4) holistic care and non-medical supports to overcome barriers to accessing care; and 5) care continuity (including care coordination).  

Table 2. Overview of themes (preferences) across health states
  Health states
Preference Walking well Mental and cognitive health Acute life-threatening Chronic conditions Palliative care
Personalized care ? ? ? ? ?
Information ? ? ? ? ?
Choice ? ?   ? ?
Holistic care and non-medical supports ? ? ? ?  
Coordinated care and continuity of care   ?   ? ?


The following describes overarching preferences common to two or more health states as presented in the literature. We then explore the subtle nuances between health groups (unique preferences expressed by one health state), which are summarized in Table 3. These themes and the nuances within them have different implications for how the healthsystem could be shaped or reshaped.

TABLE 3. Differences in patient group stated preferences, by health state
Health state Preferences
Personalized care Information Choice Holistic care and non-medical supports Coordinated, continuous care
Walking well Availability of interpretation and translation service Clear presentation of funding and insurance options Choice in the type of provider
Choice in healthcare setting
Access to non-Western medicine approaches  
Mental and cognitive health   Access to HCPs who are aware of mental health resources, offer early dissemination of counselling information and understanding of disease trajectory Include caregivers as partners in care Exposure to spiritual care Support transitions from youth to adult services
Acute life-threatening   Information on discharge procedures, care plans and disease trajectory      
Chronic conditions   Support with filling out complicated forms
Understanding of discharge procedures and care plans
Improved channels to access personal health information
Include caregivers as partners in care   Continuity in information and understanding between providers
Access to interdisciplinary teams
Palliative care   Information around possible complications
Support with filling out complicated forms
    Continuous and ongoing relationships with HCPs, particularly when transitioning from acute to palliative and end-of-life care


Personalized care

Within the literature, across all health states, personalized care was broadly characterized as representing respectful behaviour toward the patient, providing care in a preferred language, healthcare provider (HCP) awareness about the needs of vulnerable populations and delivery of care that considered both social and medical needs (25, 27, 31, 33, 39, 45, 50, 53–55, 57, 62, 68, 69, 74, 77, 79–81, 82, 85, 88, 90, 94, 99, 100, 102, 106–109, 111, 114, 116, 118, 119, 122, 124, 134, 135, 136, 141, 142, 147, 150, 154, 156, 158, 163, 165, 169, 172, 174, 176, 179, 184, 192, 193, 195–204, 208, 209). Consistent within the reviewed literature, patients and caregivers identified a preference for care that was holistic, individualized and culturally competent (19, 28, 53, 69, 74, 76, 80, 94, 99, 100, 102, 107, 108, 116, 121, 122, 124, 129, 132, 134, 135, 156, 162, 168, 176, 178, 180, 195, 197, 201, 208). Since care avoidance was often attributed to a fear of being stigmatized or judged, patients saw value in HCPs receiving diversity training.

Although holistic, individualized and culturally safe care was a common preference across all health states, respecting linguistic needs, such as a provider who speaks the patient's language or availability of interpretation services, was particularly important to the walking well group (53, 69, 74, 94, 99, 100, 102, 107, 108, 116, 122, 124, 134, 135, 156, 176, 195, 197, 201, 208).


In the reviewed literature, all the health states expressed a preference for information from their HCP concerning resources available outside hospital walls (17, 21, 27, 31, 61, 64, 65, 70, 75, 87, 89, 92, 103, 110, 117, 121, 129, 139, 158, 163, 166, 167, 171, 173, 175, 178, 183).

Although the preference for information was evident across all the health states, the specific information needs differed between the groups. For example, the walking well group was interested in information on funding resources (117, 121, 129, 178). The acute life-threatening and chronic conditions groups were both interested in knowing the next steps after leaving the hospital (21, 22, 31, 50, 61, 64, 65, 70, 75, 87, 89, 92, 103, 110, 123, 130, 139, 154, 158, 163, 166, 167, 171, 175, 183, 196, 204). However, the chronic conditions group wanted to know about care plans and community resources given their prolonged trajectory of illness (21, 31, 50, 61, 64, 65, 70, 75, 87, 89, 92, 103, 106, 123, 139, 158, 163, 166, 167, 171, 175, 183). The walking well patient group and the mental health and addictions patient group noted the preference for online resources that would support improved self-management of health opportunities (23, 24, 28, 76, 96, 102, 124, 128, 168). The walking well and palliative care groups wanted information regarding illness prognosis and treatment outcomes (e.g., drug side effects) in order to make informed decisions. Whether a decision was less sensitive (e.g., the decision to get screened for a medical condition or to receive a vaccination) or more sensitive (e.g., decision making around end-of-life care) did not obviate the need for comprehensive information (17, 23, 24, 27, 28, 76, 96, 102, 124, 128, 168, 173).


Choice was preferred in four of the five health states in the reviewed papers. Groups who have a more prolonged course of illness (mental health and addiction, chronic disease and palliative care) wished to have choice in areas related to the involvement of their caregivers and in which setting to receive care (25, 27, 30, 31, 42, 82, 89, 92, 110, 112, 119, 150, 153, 160, 163, 166, 169–171, 181, 185, 186, 194, 198, 200).

Choice of HCP and choice of setting for the care services were particularly important for the walking well group (19, 24, 32, 41, 46, 59, 94, 104, 113, 115, 117, 125, 128, 132, 138, 140, 145, 149, 156, 161, 177, 195, 201, 206, 207). However, this was not the case in the acute life-threatening group, which likely relates to the short-term relationship that a patient often has with hospital-based providers. Patient groups with prolonged disease trajectories (i.e., chronic conditions and mental and cognitive health issues) wanted their caregivers to be partners in their care (39, 42, 43, 72, 119, 163, 170, 171, 185, 186, 189, 194, 202, 209).

Holistic care and non-medical supports

These supports were preferred to overcome barriers to accessing care among the walking well; those with chronic conditions; those with mental, cognitive and addiction-related issues; and those with acute life-threatening illnesses (19, 28, 39, 55, 72, 76, 90, 94, 99, 116, 121, 124, 129, 132, 134, 147, 150, 154, 168, 169, 172, 178, 195, 198, 200, 201, 208). The relationship between HCPs and patients was important across all of these health states. Interactions with HCPs were described positively in many cases, representing the trust that patients (particularly older patients) and caregivers placed within their HCPs. However, patients wanted HCPs to be more respectful of patient needs and treatment preferences; offer non-judgmental care; communicate in ways that patients and caregivers can understand; allow more time during patient interactions to listen to patients; treat and consider social needs; and help them navigate the healthcare system (discussing next steps, available resources and treatment options).

In terms of variations across patient groups, for the walking well group, holistic care meant being able to access non-Western approaches to healthcare free of financial barriers, including traditional Chinese medicine (28, 74, 76, 94, 99, 116, 121, 124, 129, 132, 162, 168, 178, 195, 201, 208). For the mental and cognitive health groups, holistic care specifically meant being able to access spiritual and culture-based services (39, 55, 72, 90, 147, 150, 169, 172, 189, 198, 200).

Coordinated, continuous care

Coordinated, continuous care represents an uninterrupted relationship with the same primary care provider. This is particularly significant given their critical role as gatekeepers and the first point of contact in the health system. This preference was expressed by all three health states, where patients live with multiple conditions or receive care from multiple providers (chronic conditions, palliative care and mental and cognitive health groups) (25, 27, 34, 43, 45, 65, 72, 75, 83, 123, 126, 152, 157, 163, 166, 169, 181, 185, 189, 198, 202). For the two groups who often receive care from more than one HCP – chronic conditions and mental health and addictions – coordinated transitions across various care settings were deemed vital (25, 34, 42, 43, 45, 65, 72, 141, 148, 157, 169, 189, 198, 202).

For the mental and cognitive health group, coordination of services while transitioning from youth to adult care services was important given the early onset and long-term nature of diseases affecting this group (126, 152). For the chronic conditions group, coordinated flow of information among providers and receiving care from interdisciplinary teams was crucial (21, 42, 148, 159, 169, 170, 181). For the palliative care group, there was a strong preference for both an ongoing relationship with their providers and having the same provider until the end of life (17, 26, 27).

As presented in Table 3, there were some nuances in how patient groups perceived the five common preferences across the different health states in the reviewed papers. Although holistic, individualized and culturally safe care was a common preference across all health states, respecting language preferences and needs was of particular importance for the walking well group (53, 69, 74, 94, 99, 100, 102, 107, 108, 116, 122, 124, 134, 135, 156, 176, 195, 197, 201, 208). Access to information was expressed differently across health states. For example, the walking well group was interested in understanding the availability of funding (28, 76, 121, 132, 168, 195, 201) whereas the chronic conditions group was more interested in having access to their health information and community resources (21, 31, 61, 64, 65, 70, 75, 87, 89, 92, 103, 110, 123, 139, 158, 163, 166, 167, 171, 175, 183). The ability to choose their provider and healthcare settings was notable for the walking well group (24, 46, 113, 149, 207). Those with a chronic condition or mental health illness noted that they preferred the choice to engage their caregivers as partners in care. For the walking well and mental and cognitive health groups, holistic care was about accessing care that goes beyond traditional medical services to spiritual and culture-based services (28, 74, 76, 94, 99, 116, 121, 124, 129, 132, 162, 168, 178, 195, 201, 208). For the mental and cognitive health groups, coordination of services meant smooth transitions from youth to adult services (126, 152). For the chronic conditions group, coordinated flow of information among providers and receiving care from interdisciplinary teams were important (21, 42, 148, 159, 169, 170, 181). For the palliative care group, this meant having ongoing relationships with the same provider until the end (27).


Recognizing the diversity of experiences, values and expectations that reflect the broader health and socio-demographic profile of Canadians, a comprehensive understanding of the current needs of patients and their caregivers is needed to better inform tailored, patient-oriented and equitable approaches to health system design and health service delivery. Although patient-centred care is ultimately an individual concern, this review reveals five broad preferences across a wide range of patient groups, which we have further subcategorized as five distinct health states. Even with similarities across health states, the way these preferences and needs were expressed and the examples of changes to healthcare systems that were suggested differed across these groups. These differences have implications for provincial and territorial as well as more local (based on geography or defined population) health systems in Canada in terms of how they should be shaped or reshaped.

Past research eliciting the views of healthcare users has largely focused on the needs and experiences of disease-specific groups – for example, those with diabetes (105, 106, 153). Much of the healthcare system, however, is not organized around disease-specific groups, as clearly illustrated in the case of primary care. This review has shown that needs can be organized around health states and that disease state does have an impact on care preferences.

Provincial governments in Canada are initiating a number of changes to achieve more integrated and coordinated care. With the consolidation of all the province's health regions into a single province-wide health authority (Alberta Health Services) in 2008 and, more recently, the introduction of Primary Care Networks, the Government of Alberta has tried to better coordinate care through aligning governance structures. British Columbia is working toward patient medical home and primary care network models to improve the needs of patients by linking integrated systems of care between health professionals, networks and coordinated specialty services within the community. Similarly, Manitoba's creation of "shared health" is an attempt to centralize services and offer an integrated clinical services plan. In Ontario, this has manifested as Ontario Health Teams (OHTs). It is hoped that OHTs will coordinate care at an organizational level (shared governance, shared medical information and streamlined approaches to funding, with local regions' spending autonomy based on patient demographics and regional needs). However, the degree to which these efforts align with patient desires, as well as how all of these approaches will consider patients' needs and preferences in health service delivery, remains unknown. The results from our study align with notions of integration proposed by Singer et al. who view integrated care as a concept that should be built around the patient and as composed of two pillars: coordinated care across time and between settings (which OHTs aim to address) and patient- or person-centredness (210). The latter is where the results from our study are particularly relevant in the ongoing evolution of health systems to be integrated. Additionally, with the effort to achieve Quadruple Aim outcomes to improve patient/caregiver experience, population health and provider experience and to maintain per capita costs, this research becomes increasingly relevant to inform evaluative efforts to ensure that measurements are capturing the identified desires of patients and caregivers depending on the priority population.

Patient-centred care improves health outcomes and is instrumental to addressing racial, ethnic and other healthcare inequities. We identified four areas where this work could be used to inform the development, implementation and evaluation of integration efforts across Canada. This includes how patients, specifically members of each of the different health states, should be engaged in planning and improvement efforts. Additionally, depending on the targeted priority population, these findings could help inform which partners and/or care providers should be considered part of the integrated care team (i.e., having caregivers included as part of the care team for those living with chronic conditions) and support public and patient involvement. As Canadian jurisdictions transition toward more integrated health systems, they will require measurement and evaluation plans. These findings will inform the development of quality improvement plans and the construction of meaningful outcome measures that consider the differences and needs between and among health states (i.e., access to transparent information with treatment plans for individuals living with acute life-threatening illnesses). Finally, targeted investments to improve the system must consider the potential magnitude of any benefits given that different patient populations will benefit to different degrees (i.e., directing resources toward online information for individuals living with mental health illnesses).


First, the experiences with and perspectives on the health system presented in this review do not necessarily represent a full or comprehensive characterization of people who could fall within the respective health states. Relatedly, we recognize that patient populations may fall into multiple health states. This reinforces complexities in addressing gaps in health service delivery, particularly for Canadians living with multiple morbidities. Second, our characterization of health states was based on the literature, but other groupings or subgroupings would likely identify further distinctions. However, the hypothesized categorization comprehensively described the identified literature, with few exceptions. Third, much of the literature was reflective of patients and caregivers living in urban settings, with few studies focusing on the perspectives of patients and caregivers living in rural and/or remote locations of Canada. The collective literature was also relatively less reflective of certain social groups, including racialized populations, non-English-speaking communities, the unemployed or underemployed and persons living across the income and education spectrum. This underrepresentation makes it challenging to discern how health inequities may impact patient and caregiver desires of the health system. Finally, given the heterogeneity of study types, we could not make any assertions on the relative importance of one desire over another. Instead, the desires captured in this study are a composite of those most commonly expressed across all studies.


There were similarities in desires expressed across health states. However, the way these preferences and desires were expressed, and the examples of how to adapt health systems, varied across health states. If the healthcare system is going to be truly patient-centred, then one size does not fit all. The patient groups in our study – the walking well, those with mental and cognitive health challenges, those with life-threatening or more chronic conditions and those needing palliative care in the final stages of life – have varying preferences for and different perspectives on personalized care, health system information, choice, non-medical supports and the coordination and continuity of care. These findings can be used to inform patient-centred integrated care efforts on how the health system can be shaped or reshaped for identifiable patient groups. We highlight four particular ways this could work to support the development, implementation and evaluation of integration efforts. First, the results can support policy and practice planning by offering an improved understanding of the preferences of a variety of potential target populations; they could also, depending on the priority population, inform as to which partners should be included as part of the care team. Second, central to the effective development of patient-centred models is the meaningful engagement of patients, and these results provide some insight into differing experiences of patients based on their health state. Third, the results of this scoping review could be used to inform quality improvement efforts and evaluation strategies that reflect the desires of patients and caregivers. Finally, these results can inform the worthwhile targeting of investments, highlighting areas that are relevant and important for a variety of priority populations.


This research was funded by the Ontario Medical Association.



Donner la priorité au patient: examen de la portée des souhaits des patients au Canada


Les soins axés sur le patient sont une priorité clé pour les gouvernements, les fournisseurs et les intervenants, mais on en sait peu sur les préférences de soins des groupes de patients. Nous avons effectué un examen de la portée dans lequel 193 articles ont été analysés. Cinq états de santé ont été utilisés pour rendre compte de la diversité des préférences possibles en fonction des besoins en santé. Cinq grands thèmes ont été identifiés et exprimés différemment selon l'état de santé: les soins personnalisés, la navigation, le choix, les soins holistiques et la continuité des soins. Le point de vue du patient doit être pris en compte afin de répondre aux divers besoins des groupes ciblés, ce qui peut éclairer la planification du système de santé de même que les initiatives visant l'amélioration des soins ainsi que le ciblage des investissements.

About the Author(s)

Allie Peckham, MSW, PhD, Assistant Professor, Edson College of Nursing and Health Innovation, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, North American Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON

James G. Wright, CM, MD, Chief Economics, Policy and Research, Ontario Medical Association, Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, Dalla Lana School of Public HealthUniversity of Toronto, Toronto, ON

Husayn Marani, MSc, PhD(c), Research Assistant, North American Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, Dalla Lana School of Public HealthUniversity of Toronto, Toronto, ON

Reham Abdelhalim, MD, MSc, PhD(c), Research Assistant, North American Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, Dalla Lana School of Public HealthUniversity of Toronto, Toronto, ON,

Dara Laxer, MPA, Executive Director, Health Policy and Promotion, Ontario Medical Association, Toronto, ON

Sara Allin, PhD, Director of Operations, North American Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, Assistant Professor, Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON

Nadia Alam, MD, Past President, Ontario Medical Association, Toronto, ON

Greg Marchildon, PhD, JD, FCAHS, Director, North American Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, Professor, Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON

Correspondence may be directed to: Allie Peckham, 550 North 3rd Street, Phoenix, AZ 85004. She can be reached by e-mail at


1. Ontario Medical Association. 2010. Patient-Centred Care. Ontario Medical Review 34–49.

2. Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. 2015, May 13. Patients First: A Roadmap to Strengthen Home and Community Care [archived]. Retrieved June 2015. <>.

3. World Health Organization (WHO). 2008. The World Health Report 2008: Primary Health Care – Now More than Ever. Retrieved May 2019. <>.

4. Fooks, C., G. Obarski, L. Hale and S. Hylmar. 2015. The Patient Experience in Ontario 2020: What Is Possible? Healthcare Papers 14(4): 8–18. doi:10.12927/hcpap.2015.24339.

5. Institute of Medicine (IOM). 2001. Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century. National Academies Press (US). doi:10.17226/10027.

6. Donner, G., C. Fooks, J. McReynolds, S. Sinha, K. Smith and D Thompson. 2015. Bringing Care Home: Report of the Expert Group on Home & Community Care. Retrieved June 2015. <>.

7. Government of Ontario. 2019, February 26. Ontario's Government for the People to Break Down Barriers to Better Patient Care. Retrieved May 2019. <>.

8. Government of Ontario. 2019, October 15. Patient Declaration of Values for Ontario. Retrieved October 2019. <>.

9. Bernabeo, E. and E.S. Holmboe. 2013. Patients, Providers, and Systems Need to Acquire a Specific Set of Competencies to Achieve Truly Patient-Centered Care. Health Affairs 32(2): 250–58. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2012.1120.

10. Berwick, D.M. 2009. What "Patient-Centered" Should Mean: Confessions of an Extremist. Health Affairs 28(4): w555–65. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.28.4.w555.

11. Tricco, A.C., E. Lillie, W. Zarin, K.K. O'Brien, H. Colquhoun and D. Levac. 2018. PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR): Checklist and Explanation. Annals of Internal Medicine 169(7): 467–73. doi:10.7326/M18-0850.

12. Arksey, H. and L. O'Malley. 2005. Scoping Studies: Towards a Methodological Framework. International Journal of Social Research Methodology 8(1): 19–32. doi:10.1080/1364557032000119616.

13. Miller, S. PICO Worksheet and Search Strategy. 2001. Retrieved May 2019. <>.

14. Mulley, A., C. Trimble and G. Elwyn. 2012. Patients' Preferences Matter: Stop the Silent Misdiagnosis. The King's Fund. Retrieved December 2018. <>.

15. Vuik, S.I., E.K. Mayer and A. Darzi. 2016. Patient Segmentation Analysis Offers Significant Benefits for Integrated Care and Support. Health Affairs 35(5):769–75. doi:10.1377/h;thaff.2015.1311.

16. Braun, V. and V. Clarke. 2006. Using Thematic Analysis in Psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology 3(2): 77–101. doi:10.1191/1478088706qp063oa.

17. Abdul-Razzak, A., J. You, D. Sherifali, J. Simon and K. Brazil. 2014. "Conditional Candour" and "Knowing Me": An Interpretive Description Study on Patient Preferences for Physician Behaviours during End-of-Life Communication. BMJ Open 4(10): e005653. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005653.

18. Abdul-Razzak, A., D. Sherifali, J. You, J. Simon and K. Brazil. 2016. "Talk to Me": A Mixed Methods Study on Preferred Physician Behaviours during End-of-Life Communication from the Patient Perspective. Health Expectations 19(4): 883–96. doi:10.1111/hex.12384.

19. Abelson, J., L. Tripp, M.C. Brouwers, G. Pond and J. Sussman. 2018. Uncertain Times: A Survey of Canadian Women's Perspectives Toward Mammography Screening. Preventive Medicine 112: 209–15. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2018.04.021.

20. Abelson, J., L. Tripp and J. Sussman. 2018. "I Just Want to Be Able to Make a Choice": Results from Citizen Deliberations about Mammography Screening in Ontario, Canada. Health Policy 122(12): 1364–71. doi:10.1016/j.healthpol.2018.09.013.

21. Adams, S., E. Cohen, S. Mahant, J.N. Friedman, R. Macculloch and D.B. Nicholas. 2013. Exploring the Usefulness of Comprehensive Care Plans for Children with Medical Complexity (CMC): A Qualitative Study. BMC Pediatrics 13(1): 10. doi:10.1186/1471-2431-13-10.

22. Albrecht, L., L. Hartling and S.D. Scott. 2017. Pediatric Acute Gastroenteritis: Understanding Caregivers' Experiences and Information Needs. Canadian Journal of Emergency Medical Care 19(3): 198–206. doi:10.1016/S1701-2163(15)30785-4.

23. Aragon, M., E. Chhoa, R. Dayan, A. Kluftinger, Z. Lohn and K. Buhler. 2013. Perspectives of Expectant Women and Health Care Providers on Birth Plans. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada 35(11): 979–85. doi:10.1016/S1701-2163(15)30785-4.

24. Ashworth, A. 2018. Understanding the Factors Influencing the Aboriginal Health Care Experience. Canadian Journal of Dental Hygiene 52(3): 208–12. doi:10.1177/1744629514538877.

25. Aston, M., L. Breau and E. MacLeod. 2014. Understanding the Importance of Relationships: Perspective of Children with Intellectual Disabilities, Their Parents, and Nurses in Canada. Journal of Intellectual Disabilities 18(3): 221–37. doi:10.1177/1744629514538877.

26. Bainbridge, D. and H. Seow. 2018. Palliative Care Experience in the Last 3 Months of Life: A Quantitative Comparison of Care Provided in Residential Hospices, Hospitals, and the Home from the Perspectives of Bereaved Caregivers. American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care 35(3): 456–63. doi:10.1177/1049909117713497.

27. Bainbridge, D., D. Bryant and H. Seow. 2017. Capturing the Palliative Home Care Experience from Bereaved Caregivers through Qualitative Survey Data: Toward Informing Quality Improvement. Journal of Pain & Symptom Management 53(2): 188–97. doi:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2016.08.007.

28. Ballantyne, M., K. Benzies, P. Rosenbaum and A. Lodha. 2015. Mothers' and Health Care Providers' Perspectives of the Barriers and Facilitators to Attendance at Canadian Neonatal Follow-Up Programs. Child: Care, Health and Development 41(5): 722–33. doi:10.1111/cch.12202.

29. Banner, D., S. Lear, D. Kandola, J. Singer, D. Horvat, J. Bates et al. 2015. The Experiences of Patients Undertaking a "Virtual" Cardiac Rehabilitation Program. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 209: 9–14.

30. Barbita, J. and S. Neves-Silva. 2017. Partnering with Patients: The Toronto Central LHIN Telehomecare Experience. Healthcare Quarterly 20(3): 36–40. doi:10.12927/hcq.2017.25290.

31. Barnieh, L., K. King-Shier, B. Hemmelgarn, A. Laupacis, L. Manns and B. Manns. 2014. Views of Canadian Patients On or Nearing Dialysis and Their Caregivers: A Thematic Analysis. Canadian Journal of Kidney Health & Disease 1: 4. doi:1186/2054-3581-1-4.

32. Barry, A.R. 2018. Patients' Perceptions and Use of Natural Health Products. Canadian Pharmacists Journal 151(4): 254–62. doi:10.1177/1715163518779409.

33. Bauer, G.R., A.I. Scheim, M.B. Deutsch and C. Massarella. 2014. Reported Emergency Department Avoidance, Use, and Experiences of Transgender Persons in Ontario, Canada: Results from a Respondent-Driven Sampling Survey. Annals of Emergency Medicine 63(6): 713–20.e1. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2013.09.027.

34. Baumbusch, J., S. Mayer and I. Sloan-Yip. 2019. Alone in a Crowd? Parents of Children with Rare Diseases' Experiences of Navigating the Healthcare System. Journal of Genetic Counseling 28(1): 80–90. doi:10.1007/s10897-018-0294-9.

35. Benoit, C., N. Ouellet and M. Jansson. 2016. Unmet Health Care Needs among Sex Workers in Five Census Metropolitan Areas of Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health 107(3): e266–71. doi:10.17269/cjph.107.5178.

36. Blanchette, P.S., A. Spreafico, F.A. Miller, K. Chan, J. Bytautas, S. Kang et al. 2014. Genomic Testing in Cancer: Patient Knowledge, Attitudes, and Expectations. Cancer 120(19): 3066–73. doi:10.1002/cncr.28807.

37. Bombard, Y., F.A. Miller, R.Z. Hayeems, C. Barg, C. Cressman, J.C. Carroll et al. 2014. Public Views on Participating in Newborn Screening Using Genome Sequencing. European Journal of Human Genetics 22(11): 1248–54. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.22.

38. Brazil, K., S. Kaasalainen, A. Williams and C. Rodriguez. 2013. Comparing the Experiences of Rural and Urban Family Caregivers of the Terminally Ill. Rural Remote Health 13(1): 2250.

39. Brownlie, E.B., G. Chaim, O. Heffernan, T. Herzog and J. Henderson. 2017. Youth Services System Review: Moving from Knowledge Gathering to Implementation through Collaboration, Youth Engagement, and Exploring Local Community Needs. Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health 36(2): 133–49. doi:10.7870/cjcmh-2017-018.

40. Burge, F., B. Lawson, G. Johnston, Y. Asada, P.F. McIntyre, E. Grunfeld et al. 2014. Bereaved Family Member Perceptions of Patient-Focused Family-Centred Care during the Last 30 Days of Life Using a Mortality Follow-Back Survey: Does Location Matter? BMC Palliative Care 13: 25. doi:10.1186/1472-684X-13-25.

41. Bungay, V. 2013. Health Care among Street-Involved Women: The Perpetuation of Health Inequity. Qualitative Health Research 23(8): 1016–26. doi:10.1177/1049732313493352.

42. Brunings, P., S. Klar, G. Butt, M.D. Nijkamp and J.A. Buxton. 2013. "It's a Big Part of Our Lives": A Qualitative Study Defining Quality of Hepatitis C Care from the Patient's Perspective. Gastroenterology Nursing 36(4): 249–57. doi:10.1097/SGA.0b013e31829f3f9e.

43. Bye, A. and M. Aston. 2016. Brenna's Story: A Critical Reflection and Analysis of One Mother's Experience of Navigating the Medical System with a Child with Intellectual Disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disabilities 20(1): 82–92. doi:10.1177/1744629515583417.

44. Cable-Williams, B. and D.M. Wilson. 2017. Dying and Death within the Culture of Long-Term Care Facilities in Canada. International Journal of Older People Nursing 12(1). doi:10.1111/opn.12125.

45. Carusone, S.C., B. O'Leary, S. McWatt, A. Stewart, S. Craig and D.J. Brennan. 2017. The Lived Experience of the Hospital Discharge "Plan": A Longitudinal Qualitative Study of Complex Patients. Journal of Hospital Medicine 12(1): 5–10. doi:10.1002/jhm.2671.

46. Clark, N., P. Walton, J. Drolet, T. Tribute, G. Jules, T. Main et al. 2013. Melq'ilwiye: Coming Together – Intersections of Identity, Culture, and Health for Urban Aboriginal Youth. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research 45(2):36–57. doi:10.1177/084456211304500208.

47. Coffey, M., S. Espin, T. Hahmann, H. Clairman, L. Lo, J.N. Friedman et al. 2017. Parent Preferences for Medical Error Disclosure: A Qualitative Study. Hospital Pediatrics 7(1): 24–30. doi:10.1542/hpeds.2016-0048.

48. Colpitts, E. and J. Gahagan. 2016. "I Feel Like I Am Surviving the Health Care System": Understanding LGBTQ Health in Nova Scotia, Canada. BMC Public Health 16(1): 1005. doi:10.1186/s12889-016-3675-8.

49. Corosky, G.J. and A. Blystad. 2016. Staying Healthy "Under the Sheets": Inuit Youth Experiences of Access to Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights in Arviat, Nunavut, Canada. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 75: 31812. doi:10.3402/ijch.v75.31812.

50. Dale, C.M., J. King, R. Amin S. Katz, D. McKim, J. Road et al. 2017. Health Transition Experiences of Canadian Ventilator-Assisted Adolescents and Their Family Caregivers: A Qualitative Interview Study. Paediatrics and Child Health 22(5): 277–81. doi:10.1093/pch/pxx079.

51. Dalpé, G., I. Ngueng Feze, S. Salman, Y. Joly, J. Hagan, E. Lévesque et al. 2017. Breast Cancer Risk Estimation and Personal Insurance: A Qualitative Study Presenting Perspectives from Canadian Patients and Decision Makers. Frontiers in Genetics 8: 128. doi:10.3389/fgene.2017.00128.

52. Davison, S.N. and G.S. Jhangri. 2014. Knowledge and Attitudes of Canadian First Nations People toward Organ Donation and Transplantation: A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis. American Journal of Kidney Diseases 64(5): 781–89. doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2014.06.029.

53. Denison, J., C. Varcoe and A.J. Browne. 2014. Aboriginal Women's Experiences of Accessing Health Care When State Apprehension of Children Is Being Threatened. Journal of Advanced Nursing 70(5): 1105–16. doi:10.1111/jan.12271.

54. Dhaliwal, J., A.J. Perez, N.L. Holt, R. Gokiert, J.P. Chanoine, K.M. Morrison et al. 2017. Why Do Parents Discontinue Health Services for Managing Paediatric Obesity? A Multi-Centre, Qualitative Study. Obesity Research & Clinical Practice 11(3): 335–43. doi:10.1016/j.orcp.2016.10.285.

55. Digel Vandyk, A., L. Young, C. MacPhee and K. Gillis. 2018. Exploring the Experiences of Persons Who Frequently Visit the Emergency Department for Mental Health-Related Reasons. Qualitative Health Research 28(4): 587–99. doi:10.1177/1049732317746382.

56. Donnelly, L.R., L. Bailey, A. Jessani, J. Postnikoff, P. Kerston and M. Brondani. 2016. Stigma Experiences in Marginalized People Living with HIV Seeking Health Services and Resources in Canada. Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care 27(6): 768–83. doi:10.1016/j.jana.2016.07.003.

57. Downie, K., M.J. Salpeter and S. Smita-Hota. 2017. Exploring the Patient Experience with Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection in Ontario, Canada. Canadian Journal of Infection Control 32(2): 81–86.

58. Du Mont, J., D. Kosa, S. Macdonald, A. Benoit and T. Forte. 2017. A Comparison of Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Survivors of Sexual Assault and Their Receipt of and Satisfaction with Specialized Health Care Services. PLoS ONE 12(11): e0188253. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0188253.

59. Dubé, E., D. Gagnon, M. Ouakki, J.A. Bettinger, H.O. Witteman, S. MacDonald et al. 2018. Measuring Vaccine Acceptance among Canadian Parents: A Survey of the Canadian Immunization Research Network. Vaccine 36(4): 545–52. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.12.005.

60. Duhoux, A., T. Aubry, J. Ecker, R. Cherner, A. Agha, M.J. To et al. 2017. Determinants of Unmet Mental Healthcare Needs of Single Adults Who Are Homeless or Vulnerably Housed. Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health 36(3): 41–57. doi:10.7870/cjcmh-2017-028.

61. Durocher, E., B.E. Gibson and S. Rappolt. 2017. Rehabilitation as "Destination Triage": A Critical Examination of Discharge Planning. Disability & Rehabilitation 39(13): 1271–78. doi:10.1080/09638288.2016.1193232.

62. Duthie, K., F.J. Strohschein and C.G. Loiselle. 2017. Living with Cancer and Other Chronic Conditions: Patients' Perceptions of Their Healthcare Experience. Canadian Oncology Nursing Journal 27(1): 43–48. doi:10.5737/236880762714348.

63. Dyason, C., J. Simon and T.L.W. Martin. 2015. Advance Care Planning Discussions among Residents of Long Term Care and Designated Assisted Living: Experience from Calgary, Alberta. BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care 5(1): 48–53. doi:10.1136/bmjspcare-2013-000444.

64. Easley, J., B. Miedema and L. Robinson. 2013. It's the "Good" Cancer, So Who Cares? Perceived Lack of Support among Young Thyroid Cancer Survivors. Oncology Nursing Forum 40(6): 596–600. doi:10.1188/13.ONF.596-600.

65. Easley, J., B. Miedema, J.C. Carroll, M.A. O'Brien, D.P. Manca and E. Grunfeld. 2016. Patients' Experiences with Continuity of Cancer Care in Canada: Results from the CanIMPACT Study. Canadian Family Physician 62(10): 821–87.

66. Etchegary, H., J. Green, P. Parfrey, C. Street and D. Pullman. 2015. Community Engagement with Genetics: Public Perceptions and Expectations about Genetics Research. Health Expectations 18(5): 1413–25. doi:10.1111/hex.12122.

67. Farjou, G., R. Sinha, D. Dix, A. Shahbaz, R.J. Klaassen and A.F. Klassen. 2014. Understanding the Healthcare Experiences of Teenaged Cancer Patients and Survivors. Child: Care, Health and Development 40(5): 723–30. doi:10.1111/cch.12109.

68. Fitch, M.I., G. Beaudoin and B. Johnson. 2013. Challenges Having Conversations about Sexuality in Ambulatory Settings: Part I – Patient Perspectives. Canadian Oncology Nursing Journal 23(1): 4–18. doi:10.5737/1181912x231410.

69. Floyd, A. and D. Sakellariou. 2017. Healthcare Access for Refugee Women with Limited Literacy: Layers of Disadvantage. International Journal for Equity in Health 16(1): 195. doi:10.1186/s12939-017-0694-8.

70. Freeman, T., J.B. Brown, G. Reid, M. Stewart, A. Thind and E. Vingilis. 2013. Patients' Perceptions on Losing Access to FPs: Qualitative Study. Canadian Family Physician 59(4): e195–201.

71. Furlotte, C., J.W. Gladstone, R.F. Cosby and K.-A. Fitzgerald. 2016. "Could We Hold Hands?" Older Lesbian and Gay Couples' Perceptions of Long-Term Care Homes and Home Care. Canadian Journal on Aging 35(4): 432–46. doi:10.1017/S0714980816000489.

72. Gauthier-Boudreault, C., F. Gallagher and M. Couture. 2017. Specific Needs of Families of Young Adults with Profound Intellectual Disability during and after Transition to Adulthood: What Are We Missing? Research in Developmental Disabilities 66: 16–26. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2017.05.001.

73. Gemmell, A.P., P.M. Veach, I. MacFarlane, R. Riesgraf and B.S. LeRoy. 2017. "If It Helps, It's Worth a Try": An Investigation of Perceptions and Attitudes about Genetic Counseling among Southern Manitoba Hutterites. Journal of Genetic Counseling 26(6): 1357–71. doi:10.1007/s10897-017-0121-8.

74. Gervais, C., F. de Montigny, C. Lacharite and K. St. Arneault. 2016. Where Fathers Fit in Quebec's Perinatal Health Care Services System and What They Need. Psychology of Men & Masculinity 17(2): 126–36. doi:10.1037/a0039558.

75. Ghazzawi, A., C. Kuziemsky and T. O'Sullivan. 2016. Using a Complex Adaptive System Lens to Understand Family Caregiving Experiences Navigating the Stroke Rehabilitation System. BMC Health Services Research 16(1): 538. doi: 10.1186/s12913-016-1795-6.

76. Goel, R., G. Bloch and P. Caulford. 2013. Waiting for Care: Effects of Ontario's 3-Month Waiting Period for OHIP on Landed Immigrants. Canadian Family Physician 59(6): e269–75.

77. Goodman, A., K. Fleming, N. Markwick, T. Morrison, L. Lagimodiere, T. Kerr, Western Aboriginal Harm Reduction Society. 2017. "They Treated Me Like Crap and I Know It Was Because I Was Native": The Healthcare Experiences of Aboriginal Peoples Living in Vancouver's Inner City. Social Science and Medicine 178: 87–94. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.01.053.

78. Graham, C., B. Griffiths, S. Tillotson and C. Rollings. 2013. Healthy Living? By Whose Standards? Engaging Mental Health Service Recipients to Understand Their Perspectives of, and Barriers to, Healthy Living. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal 36(3): 215–18. doi: 10.1037/prj0000009.

79. Green, C. and V. Vandall-Walker. 2017. A Necessary Evil? Patients' Experiences Receiving Tube Feeding in Acute Care. Nutrition in Clinical Practice 32(4): 516–25. doi: 10.1177/0884533617706390.

80. Green, S., J. Foran and F.G. Kouyoumdjian. 2016. Access to Primary Care in Adults in a Provincial Correctional Facility in Ontario. BMC Research Notes 9(1): 131. doi:10.1186/s13104-016-1935-4.

81. Gregory, D.M., J. Temple Newhook and L.K. Twells. 2013. Patients' Perceptions of Waiting for Bariatric Surgery: A Qualitative Study. International Journal for Equity in Health 12(1): 86. doi:10.1186/1475-9276-12-86.

82. Grigorovich, A. 2015. Negotiating Sexuality in Home Care Settings: Older Lesbians and Bisexual Women's Experiences. Culture, Health, & Sexuality 17(8): 947–61. doi:10.1080/13691058.2015.1011237.

83. Grigorovich, A. 2015. Restricted Access: Older Lesbian and Bisexual Women's Experiences with Home Care Services. Research on Aging 37(7): 763–83. doi:10.1177/0164027514562650.

84. Griscti, O., M. Aston, R. Martin-Misener, D. McLeod and G. Warner. 2016. The Experiences of Chronically Ill Patients and Registered Nurses When They Negotiate Patient Care in Hospital Settings: A Feminist Poststructural Approach: A Qualitative Study that Explores Negotiation of Patient Care between Patients and Chronically Ill Patients in Hospital Settings. Journal of Clinical Nursing 25(13–14): 2028–39. doi:10.1111/jocn.13250.

85. Grohmann, B., S. Espin and E. Gucciardi. 2017. Patients' Experiences of Diabetes Education Teams Integrated into Primary Care. Canadian Family Physician 63(2): e128–36.

86. Gucciardi, E, S. Espin, A. Morganti and L. Dorado. 2015. Implementing Specialized Diabetes Teams in Primary Care in Southern Ontario. Canadian Journal of Diabetes 39(6): 467–77. doi:10.1016/j.jcjd.2015.07.006.

87. Guilcher, S.J.T., T. Bereket, J. Voth, V.A. Haroun and S.B. Jaglal. 2013. Spanning Boundaries into Remote Communities: An Exploration of Experiences with Telehealth Chronic Disease Self-Management Programs in Rural Northern Ontario, Canada. Telemedicine Journal & E-Health 19(12): 904–09. doi:10.1089/tmj.2013.0057.

88. Gutman, T., C.S. Hanson, S. Bernays, J.C. Craig, A. Sinha and A. Dart. 2018. Child and Parental Perspectives on Communication and Decision Making in Pediatric CKD: A Focus Group Study. American Journal of Kidney Diseases 72(4): 547–59. doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2018.05.005.

89. Hammond, C., R. Thomas, W. Gifford, J. Poudrier, R. Hamilton, C. Brooks et al. 2017. Cycles of Silence: First Nations Women Overcoming Social and Historical Barriers in Supportive Cancer Care. Psycho-Oncology 26(2): 191–98. doi:10.1002/pon.4335.

90. Han, C.S. and J.L. Oliffe. 2015. Korean-Canadian Immigrants' Help-Seeking and Self-Management of Suicidal Behaviours. Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health 34(1): 17–30. doi:10.7870/cjcmh-2014-036.

91. Harrington, D.W., K. Wilson, M. Rosenberg and S. Bell. 2013. Access Granted! Barriers Endure: Determinants of Difficulties Accessing Specialist Care When Required in Ontario, Canada. BMC Health Services Research 13(1): 146. doi:10.1186/1472-6963-13-146.

92. Harrison, T.G., J. Wick, S.B. Ahmed, M. Jun, B.J. Manns, R.R. Quinn et al. 2015. Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease and Their Intent to Use Electronic Personal Health Records. Canadian Journal of Kidney Health & Disease 2: 23. doi:10.1186/s40697-015-0058-5.

93. Hayeems, R.Z., F.A. Miller, Y. Bombard, D. Avard, J. Carroll, B. Wilson et al. 2015. Expectations and Values about Expanded Newborn Screening: A Public Engagement Study. Health Expectations 18(3): 419–29. doi:10.1111/hex.12047.

94. Heaman, M.I., W. Sword, L. Elliott, M. Moffatt, M.E. Helewa, H. Morris et al. 2015. Perceptions of Barriers, Facilitators and Motivators Related to Use of Prenatal Care: A Qualitative Descriptive Study of Inner-City Women in Winnipeg, Canada. SAGE Open Medicine 3: 2050312115621314. SAGE Open Medicine. doi:10.1177/2050312115621314.

95. Heard, J., A. Morris, N. Kirouac, J. Ducharme, S. Trepel and B. Wicklow. 2018. Gender Dysphoria Assessment and Action for Youth: Review of Health Care Services and Experiences of Trans Youth in Manitoba. Paediatrics & Child Health 23(3): 179–84. doi:10.1093/pch/pxx156.

96. Henderson, R.I., M. Shea-Budgell, C. Healy, A. Letendre, L. Bill, B. Healy et al. 2018. First Nations People's Perspectives on Barriers and Supports for Enhancing HPV Vaccination: Foundations for Sustainable, Community-Driven Strategies. Gynecologic Oncology 149(1): 93–100. doi:10.1016/j.ygyno.2017.12.024.

97. Herron, R.V. and M.W. Skinner. 2013. The Emotional Overlay: Older Person and Carer Perspectives on Negotiating Aging and Care in Rural Ontario. Social Science and Medicine 91: 186–93. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.08.037.

98. Heyland, D.K., R. Heyland, P. Dodek, J.J. You, T. Sinuff, T. Hiebert et al. 2017. Discordance between Patients' Stated Values and Treatment Preferences for End-of-Life Care: Results of a Multicentre Survey. BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care 7(3): 292–99. doi:10.1136/bmjspcare-2015-001056.

99. Higginbottom, G.M.A., J. Safipour, S. Yohani, B. O'Brien, Z. Mumtaz, P. Paton et al. 2015. An ethnographic study of communication challenges in maternity care for immigrant women in rural Alberta. Midwifery 31(2): 297–304. doi:10.1016/j.midw.2014.09.009.

100. Higginbottom, G.M., J. Safipour, S. Yohani, B. O'Brien, Z. Mumtaz, P. Paton et al. 2016. An Ethnographic Investigation of the Maternity Healthcare Experience of Immigrants in Rural and Urban Alberta, Canada. BMC Pregnancy & Childbirth 16(1): 20. doi:10.1186/s12884-015-0773-z.

101. Hodgetts, S., D. Nicholas, L. Zwaigenbaum and D. McConnell. 2013. Parents' and Professionals' Perceptions of Family-Centered Care for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder across Service Sectors. Social Science and Medicine 96: 138–46. doi:10.1016/jsocscimed.2013.07.012.

102. Hole, R.D., M. Evans, L.D. Berg, J.L. Bottorff, C. Dingwall, C. Alexis et al. 2015. Visibility and Voice: Aboriginal People Experience Culturally Safe and Unsafe Health Care. Qualitative Health Research 25(12): 1662–74. doi:10.1177/1049732314566325.

103. Holroyd-Leduc, J.M., J. McMillan, N. Jette, S.C. Brémault-Phillips, W. Duggleby, H.M. Hanson et al. 2017. Stakeholder Meeting: Integrated Knowledge Translation Approach to Address the Caregiver Support Gap. Canadian Journal on Aging 36(1): 108–19. doi:10.1017/S071498081600066.

104. Hulme, J., C. Moravac, F. Ahmad, S. Cleverly, A. Lofters, O. Ginsburg et al. 2016. "I Want to Save My Life": Conceptions of Cervical and Breast Cancer Screening among Urban Immigrant Women of South Asian and Chinese Origin. BMC Public Health 16(1): 1077. doi:10.1186/s12889-016-3709-2.

105. Huynh, E. 2018. The Mountain of Health: The Perceptions and Perceived Expectations of Youth Living with Type 2 Diabetes in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, through a Grounded Theory Study. Canadian Journal of Diabetes 42(4): 344–49. doi:10.1016/j.jcjd.2017.09.006.

106. Jacklin, K.M., R.I. Henderson, M.E. Green, L.M. Walker, B. Calam and L.J. Crowshoe. 2017. Health Care Experiences of Indigenous People Living with Type 2 Diabetes in Canada. CMAJ 189(3): E106–12. doi:10.1503/cmaj.161098.

107. James-Abra, S., L.A. Tarasoff, D. Green, R. Epstein, S. Anderson, S. Marvel et al. 2015. Trans People's Experiences with Assisted Reproduction Services: A Qualitative Study. Human Reproduction 30(6): 1365–74. doi:10.1093/humrep/dev087.

108. Jessri, M., A.P. Farmer and K. Olson. 2013. Exploring Middle-Eastern Mothers' Perceptions and Experiences of Breastfeeding in Canada: An Ethnographic Study. Maternal & Child Nutrition 9(1): 41–56. doi:10.1111/j.1740-8709.2012.00436.x.

109. Kalocsai, C., A. Amaral, D. Piquette, G. Walter, S.P. Dev, P. Taylor et al. 2018. "It's Better to Have Three Brains Working Instead of One": A Qualitative Study of Building Therapeutic Alliance with Family Members of Critically Ill Patients. BMC Health Services Research 18(1): 533. doi:10.1186/s12913-018-3341-1.

110. Katz, J.E., D. Roberge and G. Coulombe. 2014. The Cancer Patient's Use and Appreciation of the Internet and Other Modern Means of Communication. Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment 13(5): 477–84. doi:10.7785/tcrtexpress.2013.600267.

111. Keller, S. and M. Meaney. 2017, November 24. Attracting and Retaining the Right Talent. McKinsey & Company. Retrieved February 2019. <>.

112. Kelley, M., H. Prince, S. Nadin, K. Brazil, M. Crow, G. Hanson et al. 2018. Developing Palliative Care Programs in Indigenous Communities Using Participatory Action Research: A Canadian Application of the Public Health Approach to Palliative Care. Annals of Palliative Medicine 7(Suppl. 2): S52–72. doi:10.31037/apm.2018.03.06.

113. Kelly, D.V., S. Young, L. Phillips and D. Clark. 2014. Patient Attitudes Regarding the Role of the Pharmacist and Interest in Expanded Pharmacist Services. Canadian Pharmacists Journal 147(4): 239–47. doi:10.1177/1715163514535731.

114. Kingston, D.E., A. Biringer, A. Toosi, M.I. Heaman, G.C. Lasiuk, S.W. McDonald et al. 2015. Disclosure during Prenatal Mental Health Screening. Journal of Affective Disorders 186: 90–94. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2015.07.003.

115. Kirst, M., K. Shankardass, S. Singhal, A. Lofters, C. Muntaner and C. Quinonez. 2017. Addressing Health Inequities in Ontario, Canada: What Solutions Do the Public Support? BMC Public Health 17(1): 7. doi:10.1186/s12889-016-3932-x.

116. Koehn, S.D., A.N. Mahmood and S. Stott-Eveneshen. 2016. Quality of Life for Diverse Older Adults in Assisted Living: The Centrality of Control. Journal of Gerontological Social Work 59(7–8): 512–36. doi:10.1080/01634372.2016.1254699.

117. Kowal, S.P., C.G. Jardine and T.M. Bubela. 2015. "If They Tell Me to Get It, I'll Get It. If They Don't … ": Immunization Decision-Making Processes of Immigrant Mothers. Canadian Journal of Public Health 106(4): e230–35. doi:10.17269/cjph.106.4803.

118. Kuluski, K., S.N. Hoang, A.K. Schaink, C. Alvaro, R.F. Lyons, R. Tobias et al. 2013. The Care Delivery Experience of Hospitalized Patients with Complex Chronic Disease. Health Expectations 16(4): e111–23. doi:10.1111/hex.1208.

119. Kuluski, K., A. Gill, G. Naganathan, R. Upshur, R.L. Jaakkimainen and W.P. Wodchis. 2013. A Qualitative Descriptive Study on the Alignment of Care Goals between Older Persons with Multi-Morbidities, Their Family Physicians and Informal Caregivers. BMC Family Practice 14(1): 133. doi:10.1186/1471-2296-14-13.

120. Kuluski, K., J. Im and M. McGeown. 2017. "It's a Waiting Game": A Qualitative Study of the Experience of Carers of Patients Who Require an Alternate Level of Care. BMC Health Services Research 17(1): 318. doi:10.1186/s12913-017-2272-6.

121. Lafortune, C., K. Huson, S. Santi and P. Stolee. 2015. Community-Based Primary Health Care for Older Adults: A Qualitative Study of the Perceptions of Clients, Caregivers and Health Care Providers. BMC Geriatrics 15(1): 57. doi:10.1186/s12877-015-0052-x.

122. Law, M., A. Mathai, P. Veinot, F. Webster and M. Mylopoulos. 2015. Exploring Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Queer (LGBQ) People's Experiences with Disclosure of Sexual Identity to Primary Care Physicians: A Qualitative Study. BMC Family Practice 16(1): 175. doi:10.1186/s12875-015-0389-4.

123. Le Dorze, G., É. Salois-Bellerose, M. Alepins, C. Croteau and M.-C. Halle. 2014. A Description of the Personal and Environmental Determinants of Participation Several Years Post-Stroke according to the Views of People Who Have Aphasia. Aphasiology 28(4): 421–39. doi:10.1080/02687038.2013.869305.

124. Lee, T.-Y., C.K. Landy, O. Wahoush, N. Khanlou, Y.-C. Liu and C.-C. Li. 2014. A Descriptive Phenomenology Study of Newcomers' Experience of Maternity Care Services: Chinese Women's Perspectives. BMC Health Services Research 14: 114. doi:10.1186/1472-6963-14-114.

125. Lind, C., M.L. Russell, J. MacDonald, R. Collins, C.J. Frank and A.E. Davis. 2014. School-Based Influenza Vaccination: Parents' Perspectives. PLoS ONE 9(3): e93490. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0093490.

126. Lindsay, S., M. Proulx, J. Maxwell, Y. Hamdani, M. Bayley, C. Macarthur et al. 2016. Gender and Transition from Pediatric to Adult Health Care among Youth with Acquired Brain Injury: Experiences in a Transition Model. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 97(2 Suppl.): S33–39. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2014.04.03.

127. Liu, L.W. and S.A. McDaniel. 2015. Family Caregiving for Immigrant Seniors Living with Heart Disease and Stroke: Chinese Canadian Perspective. Health Care for Women International 36(12): 1327–45. doi:10.1080.07399332.2015.1038346.

128. Logie, C.H., A. Lacombe-Duncan, N. Lee-Foon, S. Ryan and H. Ramsay. 2016. "It's for Us – Newcomers, LGBTQ Persons, and HIV-Positive Persons. You Feel Free to Be": A Qualitative Study Exploring Social Support Group Participation among African and Caribbean Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Newcomers and Refugees in Toronto, Canada. BMC International Health & Human Rights 16(1): 18. doi:10.1186/s12914-016-0092-0.

129. Loignon, C., C. Hudon, E. Goulet, S. Boyer, M. De Laat, N. Fournier et al. 2015. Perceived Barriers to Healthcare for Persons Living in Poverty in Quebec, Canada: The EQUIhealThY Project. International Journal for Equity in Health 14(1): 4. doi:10.1186/s12939-015-0135-5.

130. Longard, J., A. Twycross, A.M. Williams, P. Hong and J. Chorney. 2016. Parents' Experiences of Managing Their Child's Postoperative Pain at Home: An Exploratory Qualitative Study. Journal of Clinical Nursing 25(17–18): 2619–28. doi:10.1111/jocn.13307.

131. Lukewich, J., E. Mann, E. VanDenKerkhof and J. Tranmer. 2015. Self-Management Support for Chronic Pain in Primary Care: A Cross-Sectional Study of Patient Experiences and Nursing Roles. Journal of Advanced Nursing 71(11): 2551–62. doi:10.1111/jan.12717.

132. Lum, I.D., R.H. Swartz and M.Y.W. Kwan. 2016. Accessibility and Use of Primary Healthcare for Immigrants Living in the Niagara Region. Social Science and Medicine 156: 73–79. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.03.024.

133. MacDougall, D., L. Crowe, J.A. Pereira, J.C. Kwong, S. Quach, A.E. Wormsbecker et al., for the Public Health Agency of Canada/Canadian Institutes of Health Research Influenza Research Network (PCIRN) Program Delivery and Evaluation Group. 2014. Parental Perceptions of School-Based Influenza Immunisation in Ontario, Canada: A Qualitative Study. BMJ Open 4(6): e005189. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005189.

134. MacRae, H. 2015. Not Too Old, Not Too Young: Older Women's Perceptions of Physicians. Canadian Journal on Aging 34(4): 545–60. doi:10.1017/S0714980815000367.

135. MacRae, H. 2016. "It's My Body, My Future": Older Women's Views of Their Interactions with Physicians. Journal of Women & Aging 28(3): 211–24. doi:10.1080/08952841.2014.950910.

136. Marchand, K., H. Palis and E. Oviedo-Joekes. 2016. Patient Perceptions of Prejudice and Discrimination by Health Care Providers and Its Relationship with Mental Disorders: Results from the 2012 Canadian Community Health-Mental Health Survey Data. Community Mental Health Journal 52(3): 294–301. doi:10.1007/s10597-015-9949-2.

137. Marsh, J., D. Bryant, S.J. MacDonald, D. Naudie, A. Remtulla, R. McCalden et al. 2014. Are Patients Satisfied with a Web-Based Followup after Total Joint Arthroplasty? Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 472(6): 1972–81. doi:10.1007/s11999-014-3514-0.

138. Massé, R. and M. Désy. 2014. Lay People's Interpretation of Ethical Values Related to Mass Vaccination; The Case of A(H1N1) Vaccination Campaign in the Province of Quebec (French Canada). Health Expectations 17(6): 876–87. doi:10.1111/hex.12005.

139. McCloskey, R., P. Jarret and C. Stewart. 2015. The Untold Story of Being Designated an Alternate Level of Care Patient. Healthcare Policy 11(1): 76–89. doi:10.12927/hcpol.2015.24364.

140. McIntyre, A., A. Zecevic and L. Diachun. 2014. Influenza Vaccinations: Older Adults' Decision-Making Process. Canadian Journal on Aging 33(1): 92–98. doi:10.1017/S0714980813000640.

141. Melhem, D. and S. Daneault. 2017. Needs of Cancer Patients in Palliative Care during Medical Visits: Qualitative Study. Canadian Family Physician 63(12): e536–42.

142. Mfoafo-M'Carthy, M. 2014. Community Treatment Orders and the Experiences of Ethnic Minority Individuals Diagnosed with Serious Mental Illness in the Canadian Mental Health System. International Journal for Equity in Health 13(1): 69. doi:10.1186/s12939-014-0069-3.

143. Miedema, B., J.K.E. Easley and L.M. Robinson. 2013. Comparing Urban and Rural Young Adult Cancer Survivors' Experiences: A Qualitative Study. Rural Remote Health 13(2): 2324.

144. Molinaro, M.L. and P.C. Fletcher. 2018. The Balancing Act: Mothers' Experiences of Providing Care to Their Children with Cancer. Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing 35(6): 439–46. doi:10.1177/104345421894667.

145. Montague, T., J. Nemis-White, J. Aylen, S. Ahmed, S. Baxter, L. Martin et al. 2017. Public and Professional Insights on End-of-Life Care: Results of the 2016 Health Care in Canada Survey. Healthcare Quarterly 20(2): 18–21. doi:10.12927/hcq.2017.25222.

146. Moore, G.P., T. Daboval, C. Moore-Hepburn and B. Lemyre. 2017. "Counselling and Management for Anticipated Extremely Preterm Birth": Informing CPS Statements through National Consultation. Paediatrics & Child Health 22(6): 330–33. doi:10.1093/pch/pxx030.

147. Moravac, C.C. 2018. Reflections of Homeless Women and Women with Mental Health Challenges on Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Decisions: Power, Trust, and Communication with Care Providers. Frontiers in Public Health 6: 30. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2018.00030.

148. Morgan, D.G., S. Walls-Ingram, A. Cammer, M.E. O'Connell, M. Crossley, V. Dal Bello-Haas et al. 2014. Informal Caregivers' Hopes and Expectations of a Referral to a Memory Clinic. Social Science and Medicine 102: 111–18. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.11.023.

149. Murray-Davis, B., H. McDonald, A. Rietsma, M. Coubrough and E. Hutton. 2014. Deciding on Home or Hospital Birth: Results of the Ontario Choice of Birthplace Survey. Midwifery 30(7): 869–76. doi:10.1016/j.midw.2014.01.008.

150. Nekolaichuk, C.L., J. Turner, K. Collie, C. Cumming and A. Stevenson. 2013. Cancer Patients' Experiences of the Early Phase of Individual Counseling in an Outpatient Psycho-Oncology Setting. Qualitative Health Research 23(5): 592–604. doi:10.1177/1049732312470567.

151. Nelson, S.E. and K. Wilson. 2018. Understanding Barriers to Health Care Access through Cultural Safety and Ethical Space: Indigenous People's Experiences in Prince George, Canada. Social Science and Medicine 218: 21–27. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.09.017.

152. Nguyen, T., D. Henderson, D. Stewart, O. Hlyva, Z. Punthakee and J.W. Gorter. 2016. You Never Transition Alone! Exploring the Experiences of Youth with Chronic Health Conditions, Parents and Healthcare Providers on Self-Management. Child: Care, Health and Development 42(4): 464–72. doi:10.1111/cch.12334.

153. Nicholas, D.B., C. Gutwin and B. Paterson. 2013. Examining Preferences for Website Support to Parents of Adolescents with Diabetes. Social Work in Health Care 52(9): 862–79. doi:10.1080/00981389.2013.827144.

154. Nicholas, D.B., A.S. Newton, A. Calhoun, K. Dong, M.A. deJong-Berg, F. Hamilton et al. 2016. The Experiences and Perceptions of Street-Involved Youth regarding Emergency Department Services. Qualitative Health Research 26(6): 851–62. doi:10.1177/1049732315577605.

155. Nicholas, D.B., L. Zwaigenbaum, B. Muskat, W.R. Craig, A.S. Newton, C. Kilmer et al. 2016. Experiences of Emergency Department Care from the Perspective of Families in Which a Child Has Autism Spectrum Disorder. Social Work in Health Care 55(6): 409–26. doi:10.1080/00981389.2016.1178679.

156. Oosterveer, T.M. and T.K. Young. 2015. Primary Health Care Accessibility Challenges in Remote Indigenous Communities in Canada's North. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 74(1): 29576. doi:10.3402/ijch.v74.29576.

157. Pedersen, A.E., T.F. Hack, S.E. McClement and J. Taylor-Brown. 2014. An Exploration of the Patient Navigator Role: Perspectives of Younger Women with Breast Cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum 41(1): 77–88. doi:10.1188/14.ONF.77-88.

158. Pedersen, H., D. Taylor, M. Gilbert, M. Achen, R. Lester and G. Ogilvie. 2015. A Cross-Sectional Survey Exploring Attitudes towards Provincial Electronic Health Record Implementation among Clients Attending the Provincial Sexually Transmitted Infections Clinic in British Columbia. Sexually Transmitted Infections 91(1): 44–48. doi:10.1136/sextrans-2014-051804.

159. Perez, A.J., J.L.S. Avis, N.L. Holt, R. Gokiert, J.-P. Chanoine, L. Legault et al. 2016. Why Do Families Enrol in Paediatric Weight Management? A Parental Perspective of Reasons and Facilitators. Child: Care, Health and Development 42(2): 278–87. doi:10.1111/cch.12311.

160. Pighini, M.J., H. Goelman, M. Buchanan, K. Schonert-Reichl, and D. Brynelsen. 2014. Learning from Parents' Stories about What Works in Early Intervention. International Journal of Psychology 49(4): 263–70. doi:10.1002/ijop.12024.

161. Pike, A., H. Etchegary, M. Godwin, F. McCrate, J. Crellin, M. Mathews et al. 2013. Use of Natural Health Products in Children: Qualitative Analysis of Parents' Experiences. Canadian Family Physician 59(8): e372–78.

162. Pitt, R.S., J. Sherman and M.E. Macdonald. 2016. Low-Income Working Immigrant Families in Quebec: Exploring Their Challenges to Well-Being. Canadian Journal of Public Health 106(8): e539–45. doi:10.17269/cjph.106.5028.

163. Ploeg, J., N. Matthew-Maich, K. Fraser, S. Dufour, C. McAiney, S. Kaasalainen et al. 2017. Managing Multiple Chronic Conditions in the Community: A Canadian Qualitative Study of the Experiences of Older Adults, Family Caregivers and Healthcare Providers. BMC Geriatrics 17(1): 40. doi: 10.1186/s12877-017-0431-6.

164. Potestio, M.L., J.M. Boyd, S.M. Bagshaw, D. Heyland, P. Oxland, C.J. Doig et al. 2015. Engaging the Public to Identify Opportunities to Improve Critical Care: A Qualitative Analysis of an Open Community Forum. PLoS ONE 10(11): e0143088. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0143088.

165. Premji, S.S., G. Currie, S. Reilly, A. Dosani, L.M. Oliver, A.K. Lodha et al. 2017. A Qualitative Study: Mothers of Late Preterm Infants Relate Their Experiences of Community-Based Care. PLoS ONE 12(3): e0174419. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0174419.

166. Prorok, J.C., M. Hussain, S. Horgan and D.P. Seitz. 2017. "I Shouldn't Have Had to Push and Fight": Health Care Experiences of Persons with Dementia and Their Caregivers in Primary Care. Aging & Mental Health 21(8): 797–804. doi:10.1080/13607863.2016.1159280.

167. Rice, K. and F. Webster. 2017. Care Interrupted: Poverty, In-Migration, and Primary Care in Rural Resource Towns. Social Science and Medicine 191: 77–83. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.08.044.

168. Rink, N., F. Muttalib, G. Morantz, L. Chase, J. Cleveland, C. Rousseau et al. 2017. The Gap between Coverage and Care – What Can Canadian Paediatricians Do about Access to Health Services for Refugee Claimant Children? Paediatrics & Child Health 22(8): 430–37. doi:10.1093/pch/pxx115.

169. Roberge, P., C. Hudon, A. Pavilanis, M.-C. Beaulieu, A. Benoit, H. Brouillet et al. 2016. A Qualitative Study of Perceived Needs and Factors Associated with the Quality of Care for Common Mental Disorders in Patients with Chronic Diseases: The Perspective of Primary Care Clinicians and Patients. BMC Family Practice 17(1): 134. doi:10.1186/s12875-016-0531-y.

170. Robinson, C.A., J.L. Bottorff, E. McFee, L.J. Bissell and G. Fyles. 2017. Caring at Home until Death: Enabled Determination. Supportive Care in Cancer 25(4): 1229–36. doi:10.1007/s00520-016-3515-5.

171. Rochette, A., E. Racine, H. Lefebvre, J. Lacombe, J. Bastien and M. Tellier. 2014. Ethical Issues Relating to the Inclusion of Relatives as Clients in the Post-Stroke Rehabilitation Process as Perceived by Patients, Relatives and Health Professionals. Patient Education & Counselling 94(3): 384–89. doi:10.1016/j.pec.2013.10.028.

172. Ross, L.E., M.F. Gibson, A. Daley, L.S. Steele and C.C. Williams. 2018. In Spite of the System: A Qualitatively-Driven Mixed Methods Analysis of the Mental Health Services Experiences of LGBTQ People Living in Poverty in Ontario, Canada. PLoS ONE 13(8): e0201437. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.-2-1437.

173. Roulston, E. 2018. Canadians' Views on Palliative Care. Journal of Palliative Medicine 21(Suppl. 1): S9–14. doi:10.1089/jpm.2017.0387.

174. Royall, D., P. Brauer, E. Atta-Konadu, J.J.M. Dwyer, A.M. Edwards, T. Hussey et al. 2017. Eliciting Provider and Patient Perspectives on New Obesity Management Services in a Team-Based Primary Care Organization. Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice & Research 78(3): 109–16. doi:10.3148/cjdpr-2017-005.

175. Saroa, O., A.E. Molzahn, H.C. Northcott, K. Schmidt, S. Ghosh and K. Olson. 2018. A Survey of Information Needs and Preferences of Patients with Head and Neck Cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum 45(6): 761–74. doi:10.1188/18.ONF.761-774.

176. Scheim, A.I. and R. Travers. 2017. Barriers and Facilitators to HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections Testing for Gay, Bisexual, and Other Transgender Men Who Have Sex with Men. AIDS Care 29(8): 990–95. doi:10.1080/09540121.2016.1271937.

177. Schneeberg, A., J.A. Bettinger, S. McNeil, B.J. Ward, M. Dionne, C. Cooper et al. 2014. Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs and Behaviours of Older Adults about Pneumococcal Immunization, a Public Health Agency of Canada/Canadian Institutes of Health Research Influenza Research Network (PCIRN) Investigation. BMC Public Health 14: 442. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-442.

178. Shaw, M., C. Rypien, N. Drummond, P. Harasym and L. Nixon. 2015. Seniors' Perspectives on Care: A Case Study of the Alex Seniors Health Clinic, Calgary. BMC Research Notes 8: 53. doi:10.1186/s13104-015-1008-0.

179. Simon, J., P. Porterfield, S.R. Bouchal and D. Heyland. 2015. "Not Yet" and "Just Ask": Barriers and Facilitators to Advance Care Planning – A Qualitative Descriptive Study of the Perspectives of Seriously Ill, Older Patients and Their Families. BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care 5(1): 54–62. doi:10.1136/bmjspcare-2013-000487.

180. Sinclair, S., S. McConnell, S. Raffin Bouchal, N. Ager, R. Booker, B. Enns et al. 2015. Patient and Healthcare Perspectives on the Importance and Efficacy of Addressing Spiritual Issues within an Interdisciplinary Bone Marrow Transplant Clinic: A Qualitative Study. BMJ Open 5(11): e009392. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009392.

181. Smith-Carrier, T., S.K. Sinha, M. Nowaczynski, S. Akhtar, G. Seddon and T.-N. Pham. 2017. It "Makes You Feel More Like a Person than a Patient": Patients' Experiences Receiving Home-Based Primary Care (HBPC) in Ontario, Canada. Health & Social Care in the Community 25(2): 723–33. doi:10.1111/hsc.12362.

182. Stacey, D., E. Green, B. Ballantyne, M. Skrutkowski, A. Whynot, L. Tardif et al. 2016. Patient and Family Experiences with Accessing Telephone Cancer Treatment Symptom Support: A Descriptive Study. Supportive Care in Cancer 24(2): 893–901. doi:10.1007/s00520-015-2859-6.

183. Stewart, M., M. King, R. Blood, N. Letourneau, J.R. Masuda, S. Anderson et al. 2013. Health Inequities Experienced by Aboriginal Children with Respiratory Conditions and Their Parents. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research 45(3): 6–27. doi:10.1177/084456211304500302.

184. Summerhurst, C., M. Wammes, A. Wrath and E. Osuch. 2017. Youth Perspectives on the Mental Health Treatment Process: What Helps, What Hinders? Community Mental Health Journal 53(1): 72–78. doi:10.1007/s10597-016-0014-6.

185. Tait Neufeld, H. 2014. Patient and Caregiver Perspectives of Health Provision Practices for First Nations and Métis Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Accessing Care in Winnipeg, Manitoba. BMC Health Services Research 14: 440. doi:10.1186/1472-6963-14-440.

186. Tamaian, A., B. Klest and C. Mutschler. 2017. Patient Dissatisfaction and Institutional Betrayal in the Canadian Medical System: A Qualitative Study. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation 18(1): 38–57. doi:10.1080/15299732.2016.1181134.

187. Taneja, R., L.Y. Faden, V. Schulz, A. Rawal, K. Miller, K.A. Bishop et al. 2019. Advance Care Planning in Community Dwellers: A Constructivist Grounded Theory Study of Values, Preferences and Conflicts. Palliative Medicine 33(1): 66–73. doi:10.1177/0269216318803487.

188. Throndson, K., J.-A.V. Sawatzky and A. Schultz. 2016. Exploring the Perceptions and Health Behaviours of Patients Following an Elective Ad-hoc Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Qualitative Study. Canadian Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing 26(2): 25–32.

189. Tobon, J.I., G.J. Reid and J.B. Brown. 2015. Continuity of Care in Children's Mental Health: Parent, Youth and Provider Perspectives. Community Mental Health Journal 51(8): 921–30. doi:10.1007/s10597-015-9873-5.

190. Tomasone, J.R., K.P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos, E. Pila, M.-E. Lamontagne, I. Cummings, A.E. Latimer-Cheung et al. 2017. Exploring End User Adoption and Maintenance of a Telephone-Based Physical Activity Counseling Service for Individuals with Physical Disabilities Using the Theoretical Domains Framework. Disability and Rehabilitation 39(13): 1332–40. doi:10.1080/09638288.2016.1193231.

191. Topf, L., C.A. Robinson and J.L. Bottorff. 2013. When a Desired Home Death Does Not Occur: The Consequences of Broken Promises. Journal of Palliative Medicine 16(8): 875–80. doi:10.1089/jpm.2012.0541.

192. Torti, J., T. Luig, M. Borowitz, J.A. Johnson, A.M. Sharma and D.L. Campbell-Scherer. 2017. The 5As Team Patient Study: Patient Perspectives on the Role of Primary Care in Obesity Management. BMC Family Practice 18: 19. doi:10.1186/s12875-017-0596-2.

193. Tremblay, M., A.J. Perez, A.M. Rasquinha, J.L.S. Avis, K.M. Morrison, J.-P. Chanoine et al. 2016. Recommendations from Parents to Improve Health Services for Managing Pediatric Obesity in Canada. Academic Pediatrics 16(6): 587–93. doi:10.1016/j.acap.2016.05.144.

194. Turcotte, P.-L., N. Lariviere, J. Desrosiers, P. Voyer, N. Champoux, H. Carbonneau et al. 2015. Participation Needs of Older Adults Having Disabilities and Receiving Home Care: Met Needs Mainly Concern Daily Activities, While Unmet Needs Mostly Involve Social Activities. BMC Geriatrics 15: 95. doi:10.1186/s12877-015-0077-1.

195. Vahabi, M. and A. Lofters. 2016. Muslim Immigrant Women's Views on Cervical Cancer Screening and HPV Self-Sampling in Ontario, Canada. BMC Public Health 16(1): 868. doi:10.1186/s12889-016-3564-1.

196. Vaillancourt, S., M.B. Seaton, M.J. Schull, A.H.Y. Cheng, D.E. Beaton, A. Laupacis et al. 2017. Patients' Perspectives on Outcomes of Care after Discharge from the Emergency Department: A Qualitative Study. Annals of Emergency Medicine 70(5): 648–58 e2. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2017.05.034.

197. Vermeir, E., L.A. Jackson and E.G. Marshall. 2018. Barriers to Primary and Emergency Healthcare for Trans Adults. Culture, Health & Sexuality 20(2): 232–46. doi:10.1080/13691058.2017.1338757.

198. Viveiros, C.J. and E.K. Darling. 2018. Barriers and Facilitators of Accessing Perinatal Mental Health Services: The Perspectives of Women Receiving Continuity of Care Midwifery. Midwifery 65: 8–15. doi:10.1016/j.midw.2018.06.018.

199. Wagner, A.C., K.E. McShane, T.A. Hart and S. Margolese. 2016. A Focus Group Qualitative Study of HIV Stigma in the Canadian Healthcare System. Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality 25(1): 61–71. doi:10.3138/cjhs.251-A6.

200. Wagner, V., K. Bertrand, J. Flores-Aranda, D. Acier, N. Brunelle, M. Landry et al. 2017. Initiation of Addiction Treatment and Access to Services: Young Adults' Accounts of Their Help-Seeking Experiences. Qualitative Health Research 27(11): 1614–27. doi:10.1177/1049732316679372.

201. Wang, L. and M.-J. Kwak. 2015. Immigration, Barriers to Healthcare and Transnational Ties: A Case Study of South Korean Immigrants in Toronto, Canada. Social Science and Medicine 133: 340–48. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.11.039.

202. Watt, L., D. Dix, S. Gulati, L. Sung, R.J. Klaassen, N.T. Shaw et al. 2013. Family-Centred Care: A Qualitative Study of Chinese and South Asian Immigrant Parents' Experiences of Care in Paediatric Oncology. Child: Care, Health and Development 39(2): 185–93. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2214.2011.01342.x.

203. Webster, F., J. Christian, E. Mansfield, O. Bhattacharyya, G. Hawker, W. Levinson et al. on Behalf of the BRIDGES Collaborative. 2015. Capturing the Experiences of Patients across Multiple Complex Interventions: A Meta-Qualitative Approach. BMJ Open 5(9): e007664. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-007664.

204. Weingarten, L., J. Kircher, A.L. Drendel, A.S. Newton and S. Ali. 2014. A Survey of Children's Perspectives on Pain Management in the Emergency Department. Journal of Emergency Medicine 47(3): 268–76. doi:10.1016/j.jemermed.2014.01.038.

205. Wetterlin, F.M., M.Y. Mar, E.K. Neilson, G.R. Werker and M. Krausz. 2014. eMental Health Experiences and Expectations: A Survey of Youths' Web-Based Resource Preferences in Canada. Journal of Medical Internet Research 16(12): e293. doi:10.2196/jmir.3526.

206. Wilson, D.M., S. Birch, R. MacLeod, N. Dhanji, J. Osei-Waree and J. Cohen. 2013. The Public's Viewpoint on the Right to Hastened Death in Alberta, Canada: Findings from a Population Survey Study. Health & Social Care in the Community 21(2): 200–08. doi:10.1111/hsc.12007.

207. Wood, R.J., J. Mignone, M.I. Heaman, K.J. Robinson and K.S. Roger. 2016. Choosing an Out-of-Hospital Birth Centre: Exploring Women's Decision-Making Experiences. Midwifery 39: 12–19. doi:10.1186/s12939-016-0510-x.

208. Woodgate, R.L., D.S. Busolo, M. Crockett, R.A. Dean, M.R. Amaladas and P.J. Plourde. 2017. A Qualitative Study on African Immigrant and Refugee Families' Experiences of Accessing Primary Health Care Services in Manitoba, Canada: It's Not Easy! International Journal for Equity in Health 16(1): 5. doi:10.1186/s12939-016-0510-x.

209. Zwaigenbaum, L., S.E. Bryson, J. Brian, I.M. Smith, W. Roberts, P. Szatmari et al. 2016. Stability of Diagnostic Assessment for Autism Spectrum Disorder between 18 and 36 Months in a High Risk Cohort. Autism Research 9(7): 790–800. doi:10.1002/aur.1585.

210. Singer, S.J., J. Burgers, M. Friedberg, M.B. Rosenthal, L. Leape and E. Schneider. 2011. Defining and Measuring Integrated Patient Care: Promoting the Next Frontier in Health Care Delivery. Medical Care Research and Review 68(1): 112–27. doi:10.1177/1077558710371485.

211. Zheng, K., A. Sarti, S. Boles, S. Cameron, R. Carlisi, H. Clark et al. 2018. Impressions of Early Mobilization of Critically Ill Children–Clinician, Patient, and Family Perspectives. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 19(7): e350–57. doi: 10.1097/PCC.0000000000001547.


Be the first to comment on this!

Related Articles

Note: Please enter a display name. Your email address will not be publically displayed